Coronavirus Live Updates: 73,400 New Cases in U.S., Nearing Single-Day Record

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Credit…Nitashia Johnson for The New York Times

The United States on Friday came just short of breaking its single-day record for new coronavirus cases, adding more than 73,400, the second-highest daily total, and signaling that infection rates show no signs of slowing.

The single-day record, set on July 16, is 75,697 cases. Since June 24, the seven-day average has more than doubled, from 31,402 to more than 66,100 on Friday.

Friday was also the fourth consecutive day with more than 1,100 deaths reported.

As the number of cases has continued to climb, so has the number of hospitalizations, which had skirted its own record in recent days.

On Friday, the number of people known to be hospitalized with the coronavirus in the United States was 59,670, according to the Covid Tracking Project, a few hundred short of the record of 59,940 reported by the database on April 15.

The national number of hospitalizations dipped briefly below 28,000 in mid-June. Since then, the situation has worsened across a number of states.

In South Texas, a rural, impoverished county near the border is a grim example of the type of hospital crisis that could arise elsewhere. In Starr County, which has more cases than its single hospital can handle, ethics committees have been formed to help determine which patients should be treated and which should be sent home to die.

County officials said there had been a rapid surge in both cases and hospitalizations in recent weeks. The county’s infection rate of about 2,350 per 100,000 people is far higher than in more populous parts of Texas, including Houston, a national virus hot spot.

The situation is so dire that Pentagon officials have dispatched Army and Navy personnel to the Starr County hospital and other medical centers in border cities to provide support, and state and federal officials have sent morgue trailers, ventilators, testing teams and surgical masks to the Rio Grande Valley.

Globally, the rise in cases is also affecting countries that had previously seemed to be models in reducing and controlling infections.

Vietnam on Saturday confirmed a new infection, its first reported case of community transmission in 100 days.

South Korea, which has been held up as a success story, on Saturday reported 113 new infections, many of them imported. It was the first time since April 1 that the daily caseload had broken 100.

And in Israel, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who was praised for his initial success in handling the pandemic, has this week seen thousands of young people take to the streets, demanding that he quit over what they see as his flubbed response to the coronavirus. Their anger is presenting Mr. Netanyahu, who has been in power for 11 years, with a new political risk.

“We’ve learned that we have to look out for ourselves,” said Maayan Shrem, 25, a youth counselor and former combat soldier who came to the protest Thursday night from his hometown, Karmiel, a two-hour bus ride from Jerusalem. Holding a placard that read “We will not cease to fight for our country,” his friend, Oren Gery, 26, added, “Change has to come from the bottom up.”

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On July 24

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Where cases are rising fastest



Pelosi Rejects Short-Term Extension of Unemployment Benefits, Again

Pushing for broader aid, Nancy Pelosi, the House speaker, again rejected the prospect of passing of a short-term extension of the $600-a-week unemployment benefits on Friday.

“We have housing in there. What, you want money for housing? We have this benefit in there. There is — I would be very much averse to separating this out and lose all leverage for all, meeting all of the other needs. It’s a fraudulent tactic, and with all due respect to you, an unworthy question when it comes to meeting the needs of America’s working families.” “Are you considering extending these benefits for a month or two while you continue to vote to negotiate?” “But what do people who are at home wondering how they’re going to pay the groceries next week have to do?” “This is deadly serious. A house is burning down in terms of the economic security of America’s families. And these people are fiddling wherever they may be this weekend.”

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Pushing for broader aid, Nancy Pelosi, the House speaker, again rejected the prospect of passing of a short-term extension of the $600-a-week unemployment benefits on Friday.CreditCredit…Alyssa Schukar for The New York Times

Speaker Nancy Pelosi of California again rejected on Friday the prospect of passing a short-term extension of extra unemployment benefits slated to lapse next week, slamming Republicans for failing to put forward a broader pandemic relief proposal that would include a continuation of the $600 weekly boost.

“No, no, no, no — pass the bill,” Ms. Pelosi said, dismissing repeated questions about whether she would consider approving the jobless aid on its own. “It’s a tactic in order to not honor our other responsibilities.”

Those other responsibilities, she said, included allocating trillions more in federal aid for states, cities, schools and coronavirus testing. Friday was the second-worst day in the country for new coronavirus infections, with more than 73,400 cases.

“I would be very much averse to separating this out and lose all leverage for meeting all of the other needs,” she said.

Administration officials had floated a short-term extension to avoid the legislative cliff on July 31 — when the unemployment benefits expire — and buy additional time to reach a compromise.

House Democrats approved a $3 trillion relief package in May that would extend the enhanced unemployment benefits through the end of the year, but Republicans want to scale them back considerably, arguing that the payments discourage people from returning to work.

Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, the majority leader, and his top lieutenants scrapped plans to unveil their proposal this week and were instead planning to do so on Monday, but they were still working out details.

Officials familiar with the talks said that among the plans being discussed were a proposal that would reduce the $600-per-week supplement to a lower flat payment for two months, and then tie it to a percentage of a workers’ previous wages.

Mark Meadows, the White House chief of staff, and Steven Mnuchin, the Treasury secretary, have said they favor capping the total state and federal benefits a worker could receive at 70 percent of their previous wages, which would mean about $200 per week in federal benefits for a typical worker.

Both chambers are scheduled to leave Washington after the first week in August for recess. Mr. McConnell suggested at an event in Kentucky on Friday that a compromise may not come together until after that.

“We hope to pass something within the next few weeks,” he said.

Credit…Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

The top U.S. public health agency issued a full-throated call to reopen schools in a package of new “resources and tools” posted on its website Thursday night that opened with a statement that sounded more like a political speech than a scientific document, listing numerous benefits for children of being in school and downplaying the potential health risks.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the new guidance two weeks after President Trump criticized its earlier recommendations on school reopenings as “very tough and expensive,” ramping up what had already been an anguished national debate over the question of how soon children should return to classrooms. As the president was criticizing the initial C.D.C. recommendations, a document from the agency surfaced that detailed the risks of reopening and the steps that districts were taking to minimize those risks.

“Reopening schools creates opportunity to invest in the education, well-being, and future of one of America’s greatest assets — our children — while taking every precaution to protect students, teachers, staff and all their families,” the new opening statement said.

President Trump, sinking in the polls and pummeled with criticism over his handling of the pandemic, sees reopening the nation’s schools this fall as crucial to reinvigorating the economy and to his re-election. While many public health experts and pediatricians agree that returning children to classrooms is critically important, they warn that it has to be done cautiously, with a plan based on scientific evidence. Many, along with teachers’ unions, have accused the president of putting children and the adults who supervise them at school at risk by politicizing the subject.

The package of materials began with the opening statement, titled “The Importance of Reopening America’s Schools This Fall,” and repeatedly described children as being at low risk for being infected by or transmitting the virus, even though the science on both aspects is far from settled.

“The best available evidence indicates if children become infected, they are far less likely to suffer severe symptoms,” the statement said. “At the same time, the harms attributed to closed schools on the social, emotional, and behavioral health, economic well-being, and academic achievement of children, in both the short- and long-term, are well-known and significant.”

While children infected by the virus are at low risk of becoming severely ill or dying, how often they become infected and how efficiently they spread the virus to others is not definitively known. Children in middle and high schools may also be at much higher risk of both than those under 10, according to some recent studies.

But the package is actually a hybrid of sorts. Beyond the political-sounding opening statement, it included checklists for parents, guidance on wearing face coverings, mitigation measures for schools to take and other information that some epidemiologists described as useful. This more technical guidance generally did not counter the agency’s earlier recommendations on school reopenings, such as keeping desks six feet apart and keeping smaller-than-usual groups of children in one classroom all day instead of allowing them to move around.

The guidance suggests schools take measures like keeping students in small cohorts, having one teacher stay with the same group all day and using outdoor spaces. It also suggests planning for how to handle when someone in a school tests positive, including developing plans for contact tracing. It also includes strategies to support students of various ages wearing masks. For parents, it suggests checking their children each morning for signs of illness before sending them to school and talking to them about preventive measures.

Credit…Ed Jones/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

South Korea reported 113 new cases of Covid-19 on Saturday, including 36 South Korean construction workers who had returned from Iraq. It was the country’s largest daily caseload since March 31, when 125 new infections were confirmed.

The new cases also included 32 Russian sailors from a fishing vessel docked for repair at Busan at the southeastern tip of South Korea.

South Korea, which once had the biggest coronavirus outbreak outside China, has been largely successful in controlling the spread of the virus, having kept the daily number of new cases below 100 since April 1. Before Saturday, the daily caseloads this month had ranged from 26 to 63.

On Friday, two South Korean military cargo planes evacuated 293 South Korean construction workers from Iraq, where the virus has been rapidly spreading. Eighty-six of them showed potential Covid-19 symptoms before boarding, said Yoon Tae-ho, a senior official at the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

South Korea is testing hundreds of sailors on 13 Russian ships at Busan, after a South Korean repairman working on one of the ships came down with the virus. The 32 Russian patients whose cases were reported on Saturday all came from that ship.

In late February, South Korea was reporting more than 900 cases a day. But its aggressive campaign of testing, tracing and isolating has since paid off. Health officials continue to battle small but steady flare-ups.

Of the 14,092 cases reported in South Korea thus far, 2,244 have been imported, most of them involving South Korean nationals who were coming home.

Global Roundup

Credit…Abir Sultan/EPA, via Shutterstock

For three nights this week thousands of Israeli millennials, provoked by what they see as Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s flubbed response to the coronavirus, blocked the streets outside his official residence and demanded that he quit.

Many were not even of voting age when Mr. Netanyahu took office in Israel 11 years ago. But their anger signaled that his storied political survival skills are confronting a new risk.

“We’ve learned that we have to look out for ourselves,” said Maayan Shrem, 25, a youth counselor and former combat soldier who came to the protest Thursday night from his hometown, Karmiel, a two-hour bus ride from Jerusalem. Holding a placard that read “We will not cease to fight for our country,” his friend, Oren Gery, 26, added, “Change has to come from the bottom up.”


Mr. Netanyahu was praised for his initial success in handling the pandemic. As coronavirus wards closed for lack of patients, he abruptly reopened the economy in late May to try to resuscitate jobs and commerce, telling Israelis in a televised victory address to get some air, grab a coffee or a beer and, while taking the necessary precautions, to “Go out and have a good time.”

Within weeks, everything went awry.

Children were sent back to school to finish the semester before summer break, which caused new outbreaks. The government zigzagged on the opening and closing of restaurants, swimming pools and beaches, leaving Israelis bewildered. Nearly a million people were left unemployed out of a population of nine million. And daily infections rapidly spiked, from double-digit figures in May to about 2,000 per day now.

In other news from around the globe:

  • Prime Minister Jean Castex of France announced Friday that travelers from 16 countries arriving in France would have to present a recent negative test or be tested upon arrival. Countries affected by this new measure include the United States, Turkey, India, Israel and Brazil, according to French media, some of which are already barred by the European Union from traveling into the bloc.

  • Nearly 300 Nicaraguans were stranded on the border with Costa Rica this week after they were refused re-entry into their own country until they could prove they had tested negative for the coronavirus, the authorities in Costa Rica said.

  • Germany will offer free tests to citizens returning from abroad as part of new measures agreed to on Friday to curb the virus’s spread. Those who fly in from countries considered to be high-risk can undergo tests directly at the airport upon arrival, Jens Spahn, Germany’s health minister said.

Credit…Stefani Reynolds for The New York Times

The Supreme Court on Friday rejected a request from a church in Nevada to block enforcement of state restrictions on attendance at religious services.

The vote was 5 to 4, with Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. joining the court’s four more liberal members to form a majority.

The court’s brief order was unsigned and gave no reasons, which is typical when the justices act on emergency applications. The court’s four more conservative members filed three dissents, totaling 24 pages.

Calvary Chapel Dayton Valley in Dayton, Nev., argued that the state treated houses of worship less favorably than it did casinos, restaurants and amusement parks. Those businesses have been limited to 50 percent of their fire-code capacities, while houses of worship have been subject to a flat 50-person limit.

Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr., in a dissent joined by Justices Clarence Thomas and Brett M. Kavanaugh, wrote that the distinction made no sense.

“The Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion,” Justice Alito wrote. “It says nothing about the freedom to play craps or blackjack, to feed tokens into a slot machine or to engage in any other game of chance. But the governor of Nevada apparently has different priorities.”

“A public health emergency does not give governors and other public officials carte blanche to disregard the Constitution for as long as the medical problem persists,” Justice Alito wrote.

The court considered a similar objection from a California church in May, rejecting it by a 5-to-4 vote.

Newly enrolled international students will not be able to come to the U.S. to study in the fall if their classes are taught entirely online, according to guidelines issued Friday by Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

The new guidance draws a harsh line between international students who are already studying in the U.S., and those who were going to arrive for the first time in the fall.

It says that students who were already actively studying in the U.S. last spring as the pandemic shut down campuses would be allowed to stay, even if their courses would be entirely online. But those who had not yet arrived would not be permitted to come to the U.S. unless they took at least one in-person class.

The guidance comes after the Trump administration threatened to send international students home and strip them of their student visas if they were going to study entirely online in the fall. The administration backtracked on that threat after Harvard, M.I.T. and other universities and a number of states sued, saying the move to bar international students was cruel, reckless, arbitrary and capricious.

Normally, international students are required to take most of their classes in person. But the rule had been lifted in the spring because of the pandemic. In-person classes are going to be scarce this fall, even at those universities that are offering a mix of in-person and online classes.

On Tuesday, Harvard anticipated the latest guidance, and said that it would not be able to welcome about 200 first-year undergraduates to campus. About 250,000 international students plan to enter the U.S. for the coming academic year, either as new or returning students, according to the American Council on Education, a trade group.

Credit…Alex Plavevski/EPA, via Shutterstock

The Shanghai International Film Festival is set to open on Saturday — minus the usual fanfare, but with the hope that cultural events are slowly returning to China, more than half a year after the coronavirus pandemic began.

“It’s a very encouraging sign that we’re getting back to normal, life is getting back to normal,” said Raymond Zhou, a writer and film critic in Beijing.

The film festival, which was delayed by about a month, is the first in China to resume. It will screen more than 320 films — more than 200 of them premieres — in 29 different theaters around the city between Saturday and Aug. 2. At least a dozen films will be featured under the rubric “Belt and Road,” China’s investment program.

The restrictions on travel kept some foreign directors and actors from participating, such as Denis Villeneuve, the Canadian director of hits like “Arrival,” who is scheduled to give a seminar online. Others are set to appear in Shanghai, in seminars. They include Olivier Assayas of France, Naomi Kawase and Hirokazu Kore-eda of Japan and James Schamus, the American producer.

On Monday, China began allowing cinemas to reopen in areas considered to be at low risk for the coronavirus. Audiences are limited to 30 percent of seating capacity and the length of screenings has been capped at two hours.

Judging by ticket sales, people in China are eager to return to the movies. The festival sold more than 100,000 tickets in the first 10 minutes after sales opened on Monday. Demand has become so intense that tickets for the Harry Potter films — the festival is showing all of them — were being scalped online for 999 renminbi, or about $140.


Credit…Al Drago for The New York Times

President Trump’s springtime confidence that he could cheerlead the country back to a semblance of normalcy in time to kick-start the moribund economy and power himself to a second term in November’s election has proved unequal to the grim summertime medical and autopsy reports emerging from the South and West. With 60,000 new cases and 1,000 more deaths being registered each day, Mr. Trump has been forced this week to retreat from the rose-colored assessment of the health of the nation, Peter Baker, The Times’s chief White House correspondent, writes in a news analysis.

The president who shunned masks and pressured states to reopen and promised a return to the campaign trail finds himself canceling rallies, scrapping his grand convention, urging Americans to stay away from crowded bars and at long last embracing, if only halfheartedly, wearing masks.

Not that he has admitted a change. As he revived his coronavirus briefings this week, he still insisted that most of the country was doing well and offered upbeat predictions about conquering the virus.

Even so, the decision to begin holding the briefings again was itself an admission that the crisis he wanted so desperately to be over in fact is accelerating even as he falls behind former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. by double digits in the polls.

“This is a case when you line it all up, it’s the last season of ‘The Apprentice,’ we’ve got 100 days left and the reality TV star just got mugged by reality,” said Rahm Emanuel, who served in Congress and as White House chief of staff to President Barack Obama before becoming mayor of Chicago.

Speaking before the cameras this week, White House officials insisted that Mr. Trump had not changed his view of the virus at all and that he always took it seriously. Speaking on the condition of anonymity, however, senior Republican officials expressed exasperation that the president in their view mishandled the virus, leaving the party vulnerable to losing not only the White House but also the Senate.

In other U.S. political news:

  • Mr. Trump’s abrupt cancellation of the Republican National Convention in Jacksonville, Fla. — a big celebration in a battleground state that he hoped would buoy his re-election campaign — surprised some allies, donors and even aides who weren’t expecting the announcement then, which he attributed to Florida’s soaring rate of coronavirus cases. But the timing of the decision was influenced by the imminent need for the Republican Party to book an enormous number of hotel rooms in Jacksonville and sign other costly service agreements, according to multiple Republicans familiar with the plans.

  • A survey conducted in early July for The New York Times by the online research firm SurveyMonkey showed that opinions about the pandemic increasingly fall along partisan lines. Republicans are less worried about the virus; a majority said they would feel comfortable flying on an airplane, eating indoors in a restaurant or seeing a movie in a theater. Large majorities of Democrats and political independents said they would not feel safe doing such activities.

Credit…Reef Chang
Credit…Reef Chang

The owners of a laundry shop in central Taiwan have become Instagram stars for posing in garments left behind.

At Wansho Laundry in central Taiwan, most dirty clothes dropped off to be steamed or washed or dry-cleaned end up right back in the hands of their rightful owners, cleaner than when they arrived.

Abandoned garments, however, can end up on Instagram.

The blouses, skirts and trousers adorn the bodies of the laundry’s owners, Chang Wan-ji, 83, and Hsu Sho-er, 84, who have become globally famous for modeling outfits curated from the hundreds of forgotten items left behind by absent-minded customers.

No one is more shocked by the couple’s newfound fame than their 31-year-old grandson and unofficial stylist, Reef Chang. “I was really surprised,” the younger Mr. Chang said recently. “I had no idea so many foreigners would take interest in my grandparents.”

He originally came up with the idea for the Instagram account, he said. Their business had slowed during the coronavirus pandemic, and his grandparents were wary about going outside even as Taiwan took highly effective measures to fight the virus. With nearly 24 million people, Taiwan has reported only 458 cases, 55 local transmissions and seven deaths.

Credit…Tamir Kalifa for The New York Times

A rural, impoverished county in the South Texas border region with more cases than its one hospital can handle has gone into a grim crisis mode, forming ethics committees to help determine which patients should be treated and which should be sent home to die.

Officials in Starr County said their cases and hospitalizations have rapidly increased in recent weeks. The county’s infection rate of 2,350 per 100,000 people far exceeds the rate in more populous parts of Texas, including Houston.

The hub of the county’s response has been the 29-bed Covid-19 unit at Starr County Memorial Hospital in Rio Grande City, which is struggling to keep up. Two or three patients are flown daily by helicopter out of the county, and sometimes out of the state, for treatment.

“Our backs are to the wall,” the county’s top elected official, Judge Eloy Vera, told reporters in a video news conference. “We are literally in a life-and-death situation.”

Given the county’s scarce medical resources, hospital officials said they had formed ethics and triage committees to determine which patients would be treated based on their chances of survival. Those discussions will involve health care providers, the patients and their relatives, officials said.

“If we believe with scientific data that the patient does not have any chance to survive with a lifesaving medical device or treatment, we will have that conversation with the family,” said Dr. Jose Vasquez, the board president of the county Hospital District. “And we will give our honest point of view and perhaps make them understand that sometimes it’s better if that loved one goes home and dies within the love of a family, rather than going thousands of miles away and dying alone in a hospital room.”

Starr County is one of several communities along the Texas-Mexico border that have been struggling to contain the spread of the virus.

Pentagon officials have dispatched Army and Navy personnel to the Starr County hospital and other medical centers in border cities to provide support, and state and federal officials have sent in morgue trailers, ventilators, testing teams and surgical masks to the Rio Grande Valley.

U.S. ROundup

Credit…Emily Kask for The New York Times

With Mississippi averaging more than a thousand new cases a day — double what it was a month ago — Gov. Tate Reeves, a Republican, announced Friday that he would limit social gatherings to 10 or less indoors and 20 or less outdoors, ban alcohol sales at bars and restaurants after 11 p.m., and extend his mask-wearing order to six more counties.

“We are still in the middle of our most painful period of Covid-19 spread,” Mr. Reeves said at a new conference Friday, as the state reported more than 1,600 new cases.

In addition to banning alcohol sales after 11 p.m., Mr. Reeves said that bars would only be allowed to serve seated customers. “In Mississippi, our bars must look more like restaurants, and less like mobs of Covid-19 spread,” he said.

New Orleans also imposed new restrictions on its bars.

Mayor LaToya Cantrell of New Orleans, a Democrat, said Friday that bars, which were already banned by the state from allowing customers to drink alcohol on their premises, would no longer be allowed to sell alcohol to go. The move promised to transform nightlife and areas such as Bourbon Street. Louisiana has surpassed New York for the most identified cases per capita, according to a New York Times database.

At a Friday news conference, Ms. Cantrell noted the outsized role bars play in the city’s economy, but also in spreading the virus.

As parts of the Gulf Coast grappling with rising caseloads moved to try to curb the spread, parts of the East Coast that tamed earlier outbreaks took steps to try to avoid backsliding.

Gov. Charlie Baker of Massachusetts, a Republican, said that travelers from most states, who had already been asked to quarantine for 14 days, would now be subject to a fine of $500 per day, starting Aug. 1, if they fail to quarantine as required or produce a negative test taken within 72 hours of their arrival. Travelers can also face the fine if they do not fill out a required form with their personal information. The state will primarily rely upon the “honor system” for enforcement, Mr. Baker said.

And Mayor Muriel E. Bowser of Washington, a Democrat, said Friday that, starting Monday, travelers from high-risk areas should quarantine for 14 days, though it was not immediately clear how the measure would be enforced. The measure will exclude Virginia and Maryland.

And Gov. Phil Scott of Vermont, a Republican, announced on Friday that the state would implement a mask mandate on Aug. 1. “Rather than waiting like other states have until it’s too late, I feel we need to act now to protect our gains, which has allowed us to protect our economy,” he said.

In other news around the nation:

  • McDonald’s announced on Friday that it would require customers to wear face coverings inside its U.S. restaurants, effective Aug. 1.

  • At least five states on Friday broke their single-day records for new cases: Indiana with more than 1,000; Oklahoma with more than 1,140; Utah with more than 880; Montana with 189; and Hawaii with 58.

  • New Jersey will allow parents to choose remote-only instruction for their children when schools reopen this fall, officials said Friday.

  • At least 19 cases have been traced to a county fair in Pickaway, Ohio, held late last month, according to a report by public health officials. Fair organizers rebutted in a post on Facebook that at the time the fair was held the state “did not require masks for volunteers.”

Credit…Eric Albrecht/The Columbus Dispatch, via Associated Press

The divide between Democrats and Republicans over the coronavirus pandemic goes well beyond whether to wear a mask.

Republicans are less worried about the virus; a majority said they would feel comfortable flying on an airplane, eating indoors in a restaurant or seeing a movie in a theater. Large majorities of Democrats and political independents said they would not feel safe doing such activities.

Those findings, from a survey conducted in early July for The New York Times by the online research firm SurveyMonkey, show how opinions about the pandemic increasingly fall along partisan lines. Separate data on mobility shows the same partisan split in actual behavior — and it can’t be explained by differences in the prevalence of the virus itself.

“The degree to which Republicans are more comfortable than both Democrats and independents is quite jarring,” said Laura Wronski, a research scientist for SurveyMonkey. “It appears that people are living in quite different realities.”

That divide has implications for both public health and the economy. Public health officials have repeatedly urged Americans to cover their faces, practice social distancing and avoid large indoor gatherings. Economists across the ideological spectrum have echoed those messages, arguing that it will be impossible to restore the economy to health until the virus is under control.

But as mask-wearing, business closings and other public health measures have become politicized, virus cases have surged in much of the country, leading to a pullback in economic activity.

Nearly 300 Nicaraguans were stranded on the border with Costa Rica this week after they were refused re-entry into their own country until they could prove they had tested negative for the coronavirus, the authorities in Costa Rica said.

Photos and videos show hundreds of masked people, who had left Costa Rica on foot, standing shoulder-to-shoulder singing the Nicaraguan national anthem as a line of police in riot gear prevent their entry. The travelers, who began accumulating on Saturday, are already on the Nicaraguan side of the border in Peñas Blancas and are surrounded by police who have corralled them in a tight space and do not let them advance, people in the group said.

Nicaragua recently decided to allow the entry of foreigners, but also began requiring everyone entering the country to present a recent lab test showing they tested negative. Civil rights organizations denounced the rule — when applied to Nicaraguans — as unconstitutional, but the government defended it.

“Look carefully at how the world’s borders have been closed, even in developed countries, and we have opened the door here, but with the measures that must be taken,” President Daniel Ortega said this week.

Raquel Vargas, Costa Rica’s immigration secretary, said on Thursday that the hundreds of Nicaraguans were either transiting through Costa Rica from other countries, or people who live in Costa Rica and decided to go home.

“We indicate to all people who want to enter Nicaragua — Nicaraguan or no — that you must present this test,” Ms. Vargas said in a videotaped statement. “We have to avoid such conglomerations of people. It’s a small space. It’s not a space that has the services to hold that many people.”

Credit…David Ramos/Getty Images

As new cases have risen more than 35 percent since the end of June around the world, troubling resurgences have hit several places that were seen as models of how to respond to the virus.

An outbreak in Melbourne, Australia, has rattled officials after extensive testing and early lockdowns had limited outbreaks for months. Hong Kong — where schools, restaurants and malls were able to stay open — has announced new restrictions in the face of its largest outbreak since the beginning of the pandemic. And cases have surged in Tokyo, which has avoided a full lockdown and relied on aggressive contact tracing to contain flare-ups.

Spain’s reopening has stumbled in the month after it lifted a national lockdown. New cases have quadrupled, with high infection rates among young people, and forced hundreds of thousands of people to return to temporary lockdown.

As governments around the world look to relax rules put in place to combat the virus, the experiences show how difficult it will be to keep outbreaks at bay. And they reflect, in some places, a weakening public tolerance for restrictions as the pandemic drags on.

The scattered resurgences are not driving the pandemic. The biggest sources of new infections continue to be the United States, Brazil and India; the director general of the World Health Organization, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, noted this week that almost half of all cases worldwide came from just three countries.

But the quick turn for the worse in places that once seemed to have gained the upper hand shows the range of vulnerabilities the virus is able to exploit.

After Spain’s strict lockdown ended, the national government put regional governments in charge of reopening. That led to a patchwork of rules and regulations that varied widely in strictness and enforcement, much as they have in the United States. While the most serious outbreaks have been in northeastern Spain, only two regions — Madrid and the Canary Islands — reimposed requirements to wear face masks outdoors.

In Tokyo, where the recent spikes in cases were attributed to young people congregating in nightlife districts, there have been unnerving signs that infections are now spreading to older people, too — as they have in Florida.

In Hong Kong, which succeeded early on by tightening borders and imposing quarantines, the resurgence has forced the government to re-close some businesses, reimpose mask orders and ask some workers to stay home.

“Once you loosen the restrictions too much,” warned David Hui, the director of the Stanley Ho Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, “you face a rebound.”

Credit…Victor J. Blue for The New York Times

New York City’s abrupt lockdown in March came just before the annual onslaught of tourists as the weather begins to warm. Officials were expecting more than 67 million visitors in 2020, about one-fifth of them from outside the country.

Now the city’s tourism officials have been left wondering how they will ever revive an industry that brought in about $45 billion in annual spending and supported about 300,000 jobs.

In the second week of July, the occupancy rate of New York City hotels was just 37 percent, according to STR, a research firm. That is down from more than 90 percent in recent summers.

“We think it’s too soon to encourage travel and invite folks to come back in,” said Fred Dixon, the chief executive of NYC & Company, the city’s tourism marketing agency. He said that for the past four months the city had had no tourism to speak of and that he was not even guessing how many visitors it would tally for the year.

Credit…Max Whittaker for The New York Times

Nearly 70,000 cases were recorded in the United States on Thursday, the third-most of any day in the pandemic. The total number of known cases in the country surpassed four million, according to a New York Times database, and the United States also recorded its third consecutive day of at least 1,100 deaths from the virus.

In other news around the nation:

  • McDonald’s announced on Friday that it would require customers to wear face coverings inside all of its U.S. restaurants, effective Aug. 1. The fast food chain, which had 38,984 U.S. locations as of March 31, joins Kroger, Target, Walmart and dozens of other large restaurant and retail chains that have established mask mandates.

  • Mayor Muriel E. Bowser of Washington D.C. said on Friday that, starting Monday, travelers from a high-risk area should quarantine for 14 days. The measure will exclude Virginia and Maryland and will apply to people who enter the district after nonessential travel. Students arriving from high-risk areas will also be required to quarantine for two weeks. Local health officials will publish a list of high-risk areas, and update it every two weeks, she said. It was not immediately clear how the measures would be enforced, though the mayor’s order says employers, universities, and apartment buildings, among others, may require people to “affirm” they complied before they can enter or to receive services.

  • Officials in Washington State announced new restrictions on gatherings at restaurants, bars, weddings, funerals and other businesses. “This is not the easy thing to do, but it is the right thing to do,” the governor said in a statement.

  • Two states on Friday broke their single-day records for cases: Indiana, with more than 1,000, and Oklahoma, with more than 1,140. Florida also announced more than 12,440 cases and 135 deaths; neither were state records.

  • Vermont’s governor announced on Friday that the state would implement a mask mandate on Aug. 1, requiring face coverings to be worn in public spaces, indoors or outside.

  • A conservative think tank has asked the Oregon State Court of Appeals to issue an emergency stay against the governor’s statewide mask mandate. The Washington-based Freedom Foundation filed the challenge on behalf of three plaintiffs who argue that they cannot wear masks because of their medical, psychological or political beliefs. Masks are set to become a statewide requirement for indoor spaces and outdoor areas — when social distancing isn’t possible — on Friday.

  • New Jersey will allow parents worried about the virus to opt-out of in-person learning and choose remote-only instruction for their children when schools reopen this fall, officials said Friday. The governor had raised the possibility of all-remote learning in New Jersey earlier in the week but did not provide more details until Friday, when the state gave guidance to school districts.

  • At least 19 cases have been traced to a county fair held late last month in Pickaway, Ohio, according to a report by public health officials. Fair organizers said in a post on Facebook that at the time the fair was held the state “did not require masks for volunteers” and businesses were reopening. But since late June the seven-day average for cases in Ohio has ballooned from about 740 new cases per day to about 1,350 this week, according to a Times database.

  • Mr. Trump on Friday plans to sign an executive order that will target the high price of prescription drugs in the United States. The order comes as the president has placed billions of dollars in bets that giant drugmakers like Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson will deliver coronavirus treatments and vaccines quickly.

  • Representative John Lewis, the civil rights leader who died July 17, will lie in state in the Capitol Rotunda next week, before a public viewing outside. Mr. Lewis’s family discouraged people from traveling to Washington for the event during the pandemic, instead asking for “virtual tributes” using the hashtags #BelovedCommunity or #HumanDignity.

  • With flights canceled and planes grounded, the Federal Aviation Administration on Friday told airlines to inspect several models of parked Boeing 737 airplanes for corrosion that could lead to engine failure before taking them out of storage. There are about 2,000 of the models registered in the United States, though it was not immediately clear how many are currently in storage.

Credit…Neal Boenzi/The New York Times

Pennies and dimes are hard to find in many parts of America after pandemic lockdowns disrupted their flow and kept people from exchanging their jars of coins for dollar bills.

The U.S. Mint wants you to know that you can be part of the solution.

“We ask that the American public start spending their coins,” the Mint, which is part of the U.S. Treasury, implored in a statement on Thursday. Or you should deposit them or exchange them for cash, it urged.

“The coin supply problem can be solved with each of us doing our part,” the statement said.

The coin shortage has forced regional Federal Reserve Banks, which distribute change, to institute a rationing system. On June 30, the Fed established a coin task force to deal with the unfolding crisis, complete with “industry leaders in the coin supply chain.”

The shortage has become a problem for many small businesses across America, and the topic of fraught discussions on doomsday Reddit and the local news.

Even big retailers are feeling the penny pinch — Walmart, CVS, Kroger and other chains have begun asking customers to pay with plastic when possible or to use exact change.

While digital payments have become prevalent, change has remained crucial to some parts of the economy: Parking meters, vending machines, amusement parks and even campground showers keep coins in regular use. For the unbanked, cash is an essential part of daily life.

“For millions of Americans, cash is the only form of payment, and cash transactions rely on coins to make change,” the Mint said.

“As important as it is to get more coins circulating, safety is paramount,” it added. “Please be sure to follow all safety and health guidelines.”

Credit…Phil Walter/Getty Images

One of New Zealand’s secrets to its successful virus response may be a simple one: trust.

In a national survey of more than 1,000 people, researchers found that nearly all New Zealanders have adopted hygiene practices known to deter the virus, and their belief in the authorities was at almost 100 percent.

Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern has been praised internationally for her government’s pandemic response and for her leadership through the crisis, which saw the country institute a total national lockdown when cases were just beginning. To date, the country has had just 1,556 cases and 22 deaths, and has gone 83 days without community transmission of the virus.

Almost all New Zealanders correctly understand important facts about the coronavirus, with nearly nine in 10 aware of the symptoms, protective behaviors and asymptomatic transmission.

The survey, led by Dr. Jagadish Thaker and Dr. Vishnu Menon of the Massey University School of Communication, Journalism and Marketing, also noted widespread approval for how the government has handled the pandemic and praise for Ms. Ardern and the director general of health, Dr. Ashley Bloomfield.

“There was a feeling of unity and a sense that we had a leader looking after us, which was in sharp contrast to other leaders in the U.S. and U.K.,” Dr. Thaker said in a statement.

Dr. Thaker noted that the success of New Zealand’s response had become “the envy of the world as our lives return to normality.”

Credit…Noriko Hayashi for The New York Times

Japan, once considered a model for outbreak control, has seen a troubling rise in new infections in the past few weeks, with nearly 1,000 new cases reported Friday.

The majority of recent cases — as in other countries that have experienced resurgences — have been among people in their 20s and 30s, who tend to suffer only mild symptoms. But. troublingly, the number of patients requiring ventilators has doubled in less than a week in Tokyo.

Officials have been pointing fingers at Tokyo’s nightlife districts, especially the so-called host and hostess bars on the periphery of the country’s sex industry. The message is clear: The rest of Japan is still doing fine, so economic reopening should continue uninterrupted.

But it is becoming clear that there are other significant sources of new cases. Clusters have been found in nursing homes, schools and a Tokyo theater. And, in a worrisome sign, an increasing number have no traceable links.

The government has resisted reimposing the kinds of restrictions being brought back in places like Hong Kong and Australia, where caseloads that had subsided have spiraled up again. And a domestic tourism campaign has gone ahead, though it leaves out travel to and from Tokyo.

The nation reached a total of 27,956 active cases on Friday, a figure nearly 50 percent higher than at the beginning of the month, and health officials are sounding alarms.

“We are seeing the early phase of exponential growth,” said Kenji Shibuya, director of the Institute for Population Health at King’s College London and a member of a coronavirus task force assembled by the Japan Medical Association. “If they don’t act promptly and try to contain it as fast as possible,” he said, the virus could spin out of control.

Credit…Rupak De Chowdhuri/Reuters

Heavy traffic, football games, rock concerts, fireworks, factories, jackhammers — all help make up the pulse of human activity, and in a world forced into lethargy by pandemic, that pulse is measurably quieter.

A team of 76 scientists from more than two dozen countries, drawing on readings from earthquake-detection equipment, reported that lockdowns have led to a drop of up to 50 percent in the global din tied to humans.

“The length and quiescence of this period represents the longest and most coherent global seismic noise reduction in recorded history,” the scientists wrote in the journal Science.

That quiet, they said, resulted from social distancing, industrial shutdowns and drops in travel and tourism. The decline far exceeded what is typically observed on weekends and holidays.

The seismometers used by geologists to listen for underground movement are highly sensitive. Apart from earthquakes and human activity, they can detect waves crashing onto shorelines and the impacts of rocky intruders from outer space. In 2001, when the World Trade Center in New York City collapsed, the vibrations registered in five states.

For this study, the team assembled data from 337 seismometers run by citizen scientists and 268 stations run by government, university and corporate geologists.

They found that the quieting began in China in late January and spread to Europe and the rest of the world in March and April. By the end of the monitoring period, in May, the vibration levels in Beijing remained lower, suggesting that the pandemic was still restricting activity there, the researchers said.

Credit…Alexi Rosenfeld/Getty Images

Nearly four months after the pandemic’s peak in New York, the city is facing such serious delays in returning test results that public health experts are warning that the problems could hinder efforts to reopen the local economy and schools.

Despite repeated pledges from Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo and Mayor Bill de Blasio that testing would be both widely accessible and effective, thousands of New Yorkers have had to wait a week or more for results, and at some clinics the median wait time is nine days. One prominent local official has even proposed the drastic step of limiting testing.

The delays are caused in part by the outbreak’s spike in states like California, Florida and Texas, which has strained laboratories across the country and touched off a renewed national testing crisis. Just weeks after resolving shortages in swabs, researchers across the country are struggling to find the chemicals and plastic pieces they need to carry out tests in the lab — leading to long waiting times.

But officials have also been unable to adequately expand the capacity of state and city government laboratories in New York to test rapidly at a time when they are asking more New Yorkers to get tested to guard against a second wave.

As capacity expanded, New York City authorities began encouraging everyone to get tested, and urged people to get tested repeatedly, setting a target of 50,000 tests per day.

In recent weeks, about 20,000 to 35,000 people are tested most weekdays, a demand that has put a strain on local labs.

City public health officials said they were growing increasingly alarmed by the delays, pointing out that widespread testing and quick turnaround times were needed to reduce transmission by asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients, who are believed to play a major part in the virus’s spread.

“This is becoming a problem,” said Dr. Jay Varma, a City Hall adviser who has a critical role in the city’s testing and contact-tracing program. “Any lag in this process can make it more difficult to have case and contact tracing be effective.”

Credit…Mark Wickens for The New York Times

Mr. Trump this week expressed a new level of concern about the outbreak, saying things would “probably, unfortunately, get worse,” but despite broad public opposition, he continues to insist that schools must reopen in person this fall.

On Thursday, Mr. Trump argued that schools ought to be able to “reopen safely,” even as he abandoned plans to hold the Republican National Convention in Florida because of concerns over spreading the virus.

“We cannot indefinitely stop 50 million American children from going to school, harming their mental, physical and emotional development,” he said, arguing that federal funding should be rerouted away from schools that don’t reopen in person and put toward voucher programs. “Reopening our schools is also critical to ensuring that parents can go to work and provide for their families.”

But polls show that Americans — parents in particular — remain gravely worried about sending students back to school.

An Associated Press/NORC poll this week found that most Americans said they were very or extremely concerned that reopening K-12 schools for in-person instruction would contribute to spreading the virus. Altogether, 80 percent of respondents said they were at least somewhat concerned, including more than three in five Republicans.

“I have yet to see any data where there are appreciable numbers of people who say, ‘Yes, I want my kids back in school,’” Ed Goeas, a veteran Republican pollster, said in an interview. “They want their kids back in school, but not right now. I think safety is taking priority over education.”

According to a Kaiser Family Foundation poll released on Thursday, 60 percent of parents with children in elementary school said that they would rather schools reopen more slowly to ensure safety, versus 34 percent who said they wanted schools to prioritize reopening swiftly so that parents can get back to work and students can return to a normal learning environment.

On a personal note for the president, the school attended by Mr. Trump’s son Barron, 14, said in a letter to parents that it was still deciding whether to adopt a hybrid model for the fall that would allow limited in-person education or to resume holding all classes completely online as was done in the spring.

Credit…Sameer Al-Doumy/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

France reported a sharp uptick in confirmed new cases on Thursday, with more than 1,000 new infections recorded in 24 hours.

This increase confirms an upward trend over the past few weeks. There were about 800 new cases per day on average over the past seven days, compared with 500 per day in the previous week, according to a New York Times database.

Health officials said that cases on France’s mainland have increased by 66 percent in the past three weeks, with a 26 percent increase in the past week alone. They added that such a trend could not be explained only by an increase in testing, meaning that the country was facing a slow but real resurgence of the epidemic.

“The figures aren’t good, they’re worrying,” Jean-François Delfraissy, the head of the scientific council appointed by President Emmanuel Macron to help fight the epidemic, told French media this week.

Mr. Delfraissy mentioned “a series of particularly important clusters” of cases that could help foster a second wave of infection. There are currently 120 clusters of infections in France.

In a statement on Thursday, French health authorities said that “this basic trend indicates that our recent habits have been facilitating the circulation of the virus for several weeks.”

Authorities said people had been less vigilant about taking steps to protect themselves and others from the virus. The problem is expected to worsen as France enters its vacation season, leading to crowds thronging beaches and other popular tourist areas, often at the expense of basic gestures such as social distancing.

The increase in cases prompted the French government to impose mandatory mask-wearing in enclosed public places this week. On Thursday, Olivier Véran, the health minister, said the government would send 40 million washable masks to seven million people who are considered most in need.

On Friday, Mr. Macron met with French defense officials to consider new measures to combat the resurgence, including a tightening in border controls.

Credit…Oli Scarff/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Masks are now required in shops, supermarkets, transportation hubs and when picking up food and drink from restaurants in England. Those who refuse to wear a face covering could be fined up to 100 pounds, or $127.

Workers in shops and supermarkets are not required to wear face coverings. British authorities only said they “strongly recommend that employers consider their use where appropriate.”

But as the new guidelines came into force on Friday, some supermarkets and coffee shop chains said they would not challenge customers who enter their businesses unmasked.

The new guidelines come after months of equivocation on the matter from the British government, as Prime Minister Boris Johnson has vowed to kick-start Britain’s economy. The government has also been trying to contain upticks in virus cases, in one case by imposing a local lockdown in Leicester.

According to the guidelines, the police can forcibly remove individuals from a venue if they refuse to wear a mask, but supermarket chains Sainsbury’s and Asda, along with Costa Coffee, said they wouldn’t challenge customers who enter their businesses without a mask, as “they may have a reason not to wear” one.

Children under 11, and people with disabilities or certain health conditions are exempt, and face coverings are not required in pubs and cafes, hairdressers or cinemas. They were already mandatory on public transportation.

The guidelines on masks bring England into line with European countries including Germany, Italy and Spain. Britain has been the hardest-hit country in Europe, with at least 45,500 coronavirus deaths, and nearly 300,000 cases.

Credit…Pete Marovich for The New York Times

The Federal Emergency Management Agency has been shipping masks, gowns and gloves to 15,000 nonprofit nursing care facilities since June. But many of the shipments have been filled with unusable or low-quality gear.

Nursing home employees said they have opened boxes filled with loose gloves of unknown provenance stuffed into unmarked Ziploc bags, surgical masks crafted from underwear fabric and plastic isolation gowns without openings for hands. Some reported receiving masks with brittle elastic bands that snap when stretched.

None of the shipments have included functional N95 respirators, the virus-filtering face masks that are the single most important bulwark against infection.

“People hate to complain about personal protective equipment they’re getting for free, but many of these items are just useless,” said Brendan Williams, president of the New Hampshire Health Care Association, which has been a fielding a flurry of calls about the defective gear from nursing homes it represents. “It’s mystifying that the government would think this is acceptable.”

More than 40 percent of all U.S. deaths from the virus have been tied to nursing homes, according to a New York Times analysis, which linked a total of 316,000 infections to 14,000 facilities as of July 15.

FEMA pointed its finger at a private contractor it employs and issued a statement saying it has received complaints “on less than 1 percent of the total PPE shipments to nursing homes.”

The agency began shipping the masks, gowns and gloves this spring to 15,000 nonprofit nursing care facilities whose limited finances have made it difficult to buy protective equipment on the open market. The first cache of shipments was completed in mid-June, and the second round will wrap up by early August.

While the C.D.C.’s new guidance for opening schools downplayed the risks the virus poses to school-age children, a number of recent clusters of virus cases around the United States have been linked to school-related events and gatherings of teenagers.

In O’Fallon, Mo., just outside St. Louis, 19 students from St. Dominic High School and two of their guests tested positive after attending an outdoor graduation ceremony on July 8 that was followed by an off-site prom July 10, the school said in a statement this week.

And health officials in Cass County, Mo., just outside Kansas City, have linked more than 50 cases — primarily among teenagers and young adults between the ages of 15 and 25 — to a party on July 3 that attracted more than 200 people, Andrew Warlen, the director of the county health department, said in an email. He said that some people who became ill after attending the party had gone on to infect household members.

In Middletown, N.J., officials are investigating a cluster of roughly 20 cases in teenagers between the ages of 15 and 19 who contracted the virus after attending a party. “The cases may be related to a house party that allegedly occurred on or about July 11th,” the township said in a statement. New Jersey’s governor urged people with connections to the cluster or the party to cooperate with contact tracers, saying this week that while he does not condone underage drinking, “this isn’t a witch hunt.”

And in Chappaqua, N.Y., a spike in cases was traced to a drive-in graduation that was held in late June for Horace Greeley High School, which was then followed by other gatherings. “We have identified at this point that there are 27 positive cases that tie back to that set of activities,” George Latimer, the Westchester County executive, said at a news conference on July 6.

While children infected by the virus are at low risk of becoming severely ill or dying, how often they become infected and how efficiently they spread the virus is not definitively known. A large new study from South Korea found that children younger than 10 transmit the virus to others much less often than adults do, but that those between the ages of 10 and 19 can spread the virus at least as much as adults do.

Reporting was contributed by Peter Baker, Dan Bilefsky, William J. Broad, Alexander Burns, José María León Cabrera, Julia Calderone, Ben Casselman, Niraj Chokshi, Emily Cochrane, Michael Cooper, Melissa Eddy, Manny Fernandez, Gillian Friedman, Claire Fu, Michael Gold, Joseph Goldstein, Abby Goodnough, Rebecca Halleck, Maggie Haberman, Anemona Hartocolis, Hikari Hida, Chris Horton, Andrew Jacobs, Annie Karni, Josh Keller, Anatoly Kurmanaev, Adam Liptak, Patricia Mazzei, Patrick McGeehan, Jesse McKinley, Constant Méheut, Raphael Minder, Richard C. Paddock, Elian Peltier, Alan Rappeport, Motoko Rich, Frances Robles, Giovanni Russonello, Choe Sang-Hun, Nate Schweber, Mitch Smith, Megan Specia, Kaly Soto, Jim Tankersley, María Silvia Trigo, Daniel Victor, Lauren Wolfe and Will Wright.

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