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Global restrictions rise, but so do the number of new infections.
Countries closed borders, cities from New York and Los Angeles to Paris and Madrid closed bars and restaurants, schools closed more classrooms and hundreds of millions of people closed their doors on one another as the authorities took ever more drastic steps to slow the spread of the new coronavirus.
The consequences of China’s harsh measures to halt the virus — restricting the movement of about 700 million people at one point — became apparent on Monday when the government released economic data showing industrial output falling to its lowest level in decades and unemployment rising at its highest rate ever in February.
While the economic ramifications of China’s approach are still playing out, Beijing did succeed in slowing the rise of new infections, as the total number of cases outside the country has for the first time surpassed those inside it.
The Federal Reserve, seeking to steady financial markets, cut interest rates to near zero and said it would buy hundreds of billions of dollars in U.S. government debt. But global stocks still tumbled on Monday.
As the virus continues to spread across the United States, public life is increasingly shut down. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now recommends a ban on gatherings of more than 50 people for the next eight weeks. And on Monday morning, officials said that guidance would be enforced in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut.
And as Americans are asked to isolate themselves, the United States has stepped up plans to isolate itself from the world, with travelers from Britain and Ireland on Monday joining the list of other European countries barred from entering the country.
But even as a patchwork of new restrictions were put in place across the country — with different states and localities charting their own course — there was growing concern that hospitals could soon be overwhelmed.
“We have an impending catastrophe when this wave of growth crashes on the hospital system,” Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York said in an appearance on CNN on Monday.
Within Europe, countries are closing themselves off. The Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia have all closed themselves off to foreigners. And Germany, the economic engine of the Continent, said that it would partly close its borders with five neighboring countries.
Still, the number of new cases across the Continent continues to surge, and there is growing worry that the health care systems of Spain and France could soon face the kind of dire situation playing out in Italy — where doctors have had to make grim decisions about which patients to treat.
There is a scramble across the Continent to step up production of ventilators, with leaders calling for the kind of effort seen in wartime to produce munitions.
The Spanish government warned on Monday that it would probably extend the state of emergency and keep people indoors beyond the initial period of 15 days.
Jérôme Salomon, a top official at the French health ministry, said the situation was “deteriorating very quickly.” He told France Inter radio on Monday that many people did not seem to be taking calls for social distancing seriously, and he tried to dispel the notion that the virus seriously threatens only the elderly. There are 300 to 400 people in intensive care in France, he said, and roughly half of them are under age 65.
Trump tells governors to seek out respirators and other vital equipment on their own.
President Trump told a group of governors Monday morning that they should not wait for the federal government to fill the growing demand for respirators needed to help people diagnosed with coronavirus.
“Respirators, ventilators, all of the equipment — try getting it yourselves,” Mr. Trump told the governors during the conference call, a recording of which was shared with The New York Times.
“We will be backing you, but try getting it yourselves. Point of sales, much better, much more direct if you can get it yourself.”
The suggestion surprised some of the governors, who have been scrambling to contain the outbreak and are increasingly looking to the federal government for help with equipment, personnel and financial aid.
Mr. Trump used much of the call to repeat the same upbeat rhetoric he has offered in public, assuring the governors: “We’re going to get it remedied and hopefully very quickly.”
Alluding to the Federal Reserve’s emergency intervention, Mr. Trump also told the governors that the central bank’s purchase of $500 billion of Treasury bonds and $200 billion of mortgage-backed securities will “probably go up substantially from that level.”
Without directly faulting former President Obama, he said “we broke down a system that was broken, very badly broken” and vowed to create one “that I think is going to be the talk of the world.”
But aside from his rose-colored predictions — which are at odds with his medical advisers, who say the worst is yet to come — Mr. Trump often evinced little awareness of the severity of the contagion.
Explaining why he did not include the United Kingdom in his initial travel ban from Europe last week, Mr. Trump said “all of the sudden we were getting numbers that weren’t good so we had to put U.K. in.”
The E.U. chief wants to seal it off from almost all international travel.
The top official of the European Union said on Monday that she was proposing a shutdown of all non-essential travel into the bloc to stem the spread of the coronavirus.
The official, Ursula von der Leyen, president of the European Commission, said that there was strong support among the 27 member countries for sealing off the European Union, and the leaders of those countries would make a formal decision on Wednesday.
“We propose to introduce a temporary restriction to non-essential travel to the European Union,” she said after a teleconference with G7 leaders. “Of course there will be exemptions for E.U. citizens coming back home, health care workers, doctors and nurses.”
The restriction would initially be in place for 30 days and would apply to travel from non-European Union countries into the bloc.
It would not restrict travel from one European Union country to another, but some of the member states have already taken the first steps in that direction. Ten of the 26 countries that make up the passport-free Schengen Area, which allows for largely free movement across mainland Europe, have reintroduced border controls, partly or fully suspending the rules of the flagship European Union program, a spokesman for the European Commission said.
Eight European Union member countries that are in the Schengen Area have notified the commission, the administrative branch of the European Union, that they have started checking travel documents of those arriving from other countries within the passport-free zone: Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania and Poland.
Two Schengen Area countries that are not European Union members have done the same, Norway and Switzerland.
The measures were introduced over the past few days as the outbreak in Italy worsened, but it is the first time the Commission announced the full tally of countries now opting to harden their borders and ports of entry in a bid to arrest the spread of the coronavirus.
Other European nations have taken tough travel measures to limit arrivals from Italy and, in some cases Spain, but these do not in and of themselves constitute a change of Schengen rules.
The European Commission earlier Monday proposed a set of policies that would aim at keeping goods flowing within the European Union, but would allow countries to toughen their own border measures for travelers depending on how vulnerable they were to the outbreak.
New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut ban gatherings of more than 50 people.
New York City is closing the nation’s largest school system and said that all bars and restaurants would close, limiting those outlets to takeout and food delivery.
And Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo called for the Army Corps of Engineers to expand hospital capacity to deal with a surge in patients and keep the health care system from being overwhelmed. On Monday, Mr. Cuomo said he was coordinating with his counterparts in New Jersey and Connecticut to make sure that restrictions across the three states — including those on gatherings of 50 or more people — were in harmony.
The measures by New York City — the most aggressive and disruptive efforts so far to stem the spread of the coronavirus in the city — were announced after local authorities came under intense scrutiny .
“I’m very, very concerned that we see a rapid spread of this disease, and it’s time to take more dramatic measures,” Mayor Bill de Blasio said on Sunday afternoon. “This is a decision I have taken with no joy and a lot of pain.”
The city’s schools are closed on Monday for all students and employees, but teachers will be asked to report to work later in the week for training on how to provide remote learning, Mr. de Blasio said, adding that his goal was to reopen all schools on April 20.
Some locations will reopen on March 23 as “enrichment centers,” set up to provide instruction and services for vulnerable children, including homeless students and children with special needs. But Mr. de Blasio said there was a strong chance that schools would not reopen at all this school year.
Later on Sunday, he ordered that all restaurants bars and cafes limit their operations to food take out and delivery. Nightclubs, movie theaters and concert venues will also close starting on Tuesday.
Across the Hudson River in Hoboken, N.J., that city has also introduced severe restrictions, including a curfew from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m. beginning Monday. All bars and restaurants will be limited to takeout and delivery services.
All public and private schools in Nassau County, which includes some of the most densely populated areas of Long Island, are closed starting Monday, and New Jersey’s governor said on Sunday that a statewide school shutdown was “imminent.”
In Connecticut, all public schools will shut down on Tuesday and remain closed until at least March 31.
Wall Street trading is halted after a steep sell-off at the opening.
Stocks on Wall Street plunged on Monday and trading was immediately halted after an extraordinary move by the Federal Reserve failed to prevent further panic.
Investors were also confronted with weak economic readings out of China and the United States, the world’s largest economies. Chinese officials reported that retail sales, manufacturing activity and investment in the first two months of the year had slumped even more than economists expected, and a gauge of manufacturing activity in New York State collapsed by the most ever in a month.
“Unfortunately this is the new reality,” wrote economic analysts with the investment bank Jefferies in New York. “This report is a harbinger of what is to come.”
The S&P 500 fell 8 percent at the start of trading. A drop of more than 7 percent triggers an automatic “circuit breaker” that halts trading for 15 minutes, a measure meant to prevent the markets from crashing.
European markets tumbled and bond prices moved sharply higher, sending yields — which move in the opposite direction — down. Crude oil prices were also lower, signaling concern that demand for crude will continue to fall.
The Fed’s emergency interest rate cut on Sunday underscored its deepening worry that the spread of the pandemic is sharply depressing revenue for industries around the world while consumers hunker down, raising the risk of a worldwide recession. The central bank cut interest rates to near zero and said it would buy hundreds of billions of dollars in government debt, moves reminiscent of its actions during the 2008 financial crisis.
Those moves were engineered to ensure that credit flows freely, spurring businesses and households to continue borrowing and spending. But markets appeared to absorb the action as the latest indication that the world had arrived at a dangerous place.
Italy pledges billions in assistance, allowing for delays in mortgage, loan and tax payments.
Italy on Monday adopted emergency measures worth nearly $28 billion to help protect the country’s economy from being ravaged by the coronavirus outbreak.
In announcing the measures, Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said that no Italian “should feel abandoned” during this crisis, and that the aide package offered “concrete evidence of the presence of the state.”
Funds are being made available to postpone mortgage, loan and tax payments, Mr. Conte said.
More than $3 billion is being set aside to bolster the national health system, which is feeling the strain of caring for the thousands of people infected with the virus who need urgent medical attention. In all, more than 25,000 people have tested positive in Italy and more than 1,800 have died.
The government also hopes to cushion the crushing losses being suffered by businesses.
Economy Minister Roberto Gualtieri said at a news conference that more than $11 billion would be devoted the ensuring that “no one will lose their job because of the coronavirus.”
The country will offer extended parental leave, babysitting vouchers and grants of more than $650 for self-employed and seasonal workers for the month of March. Professionals and freelancers will receive financial support, officials said, and people ordered into quarantine will qualify for sick leave.
All of the measures can be extended if necessary, officials said.
“We never considered fighting a flood with buckets,” Mr. Conte said. “We are trying to build a damn to protect businesses, families and workers.”
Across America, states and localities limit public interactions.
With a growing chorus of public officials across the United States warning that the nation’s health care infrastructure could buckle under the pressure of a large surge in coronavirus patients, states and localities issued more restrictions on public life and urged all Americans to take personal responsibility to stop the spread of the virus.
For many students, parents and teachers, it was the first Monday without a regular school week, and the number of families affected continued to grow. New York City, the largest district in the nation, with 1.1 million students, was set to shut down, and Massachusetts moved to close schools across the state beginning Tuesday.
Officials took some of their most aggressive steps yet to stop the spread of the virus, shutting restaurants and bars in New York City, Los Angeles, Massachusetts, Ohio, Washington State, Maryland, Michigan, Indiana and Puerto Rico, with the exception of takeout or delivery in some places.
The move will close bars in New York City, Boston and California, among other places, for the St. Patrick’s Day holiday on Tuesday, which is typically one of their busiest days of the year.
Movie theaters, theaters and gyms were also closing. In California, Gov. Gavin Newsom called for people 65 and older to shelter in their homes.
The number of coronavirus cases in the United States climbed to over 3,600 across 49 states on Monday. West Virginia is the only state without a documented case of the virus.
In California, Governor Newsom also issued guidelines calling for the closing of all bars, night clubs and wineries. He said that restaurants could remain open, but they must reduce their occupancy by half to allow for more “social distancing” among diners.
And movie theaters and gyms were closed in Los Angeles by its mayor, Eric Garcetti, who also said on Sunday evening that he was temporarily closing bars, nightclubs and restaurants except for takeout and delivery.
Spain seals its borders, and France sounds the alarm.
Spanish announced the closing of its land borders started at midnight on Monday, while French officials, warning that their health care systems could soon be overwhelmed, set about imposing ever-tighter restrictions on the movement of their citizens.
Fernando Grande-Marlaska, Spain’s interior minister, described the border closure as a “proportional measure” given the challenge facing Spain, which now has about 330 dead and 8,000 cases, the worst coronavirus toll in Europe after Italy. He said that only citizens, residents and those with special circumstances to cross into Spanish territory would be allowed in. Airports would remain open to foreigners, he said.
Even before that announcement, residents had been ordered to confine themselves to their homes — and to leave only to buy food, go to work, seek medical care or assist older people and others in need. All schools, restaurants and bars in the country were ordered to close.
The government has ordered medical students, private hospitals and factories producing medical equipment to help boost the resources of the public health system.
In France, Jérôme Salomon, a top official in the health ministry, said on Monday that the situation was “deteriorating very quickly.”About 300 to 400 people infected with the virus in the country are in critical condition, he said, and about half of those patients are under 65 years old.
“We are seeing that the number of cases is doubling every three days,” Mr. Salomon told France Inter radio.
France announced the closing of all “non-indispensable” businesses, including restaurants, bars and movie theaters, after a sharp rise in coronavirus cases. The number of French cases has passed 5,400, with 127 deaths.
As other countries in Europe saw their own numbers surge, many sought to seal themselves off from one another. Germany has also curtailed the entry of foreigners, effectively closing its land borders.
Switzerland also ratcheted up its response after recording 840 new cases of infection on Sunday, a rise that brought the national total to 2,200. The Swiss authorities have barred people entering from Italy unless they live or work in Switzerland, and the interior minister said checks were likely to follow at all national borders.
The Trump administration is expected to offer new guidelines, and senators are due to take up a relief bill.
President Trump planned to spend Monday consulting with leaders around the world and throughout the United States as stock markets collapsed and his administration considered further measures to limit social interaction.
Mr. Trump had calls scheduled with fellow Group of 7 leaders at 10 a.m. Eastern and with the nation’s governors at 11:30 a.m.
Vice President Mike Pence said on Sunday that the administration would probably announce more guidelines at Monday’s daily White House coronavirus briefing. That briefing, originally scheduled for 10:30 a.m., was moved to 3:30 p.m.
The deliberations at the White House came as the Senate prepared to take up a bipartisan coronavirus aid measure brokered by Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin.
The House, which left for a weeklong recess after approving the package early Saturday, is expected to quickly approve technical changes to the package on Monday. That action does not require the presence of lawmakers.
But senators — nearly half of whom are 65 or older, a population that public health officials consider at the highest risk of becoming seriously sick if infected with the coronavirus — are on commercial flights back to the capital.
The impact of the coronavirus continued to be seen throughout Washington on Monday, including at the White House, where for the first time all people entering had their temperatures taken before being allowed in.
Federal agencies were under pressure as they scrambled to direct their employees to work from home.
And the first lady, Melania Trump, said that the annual Easter egg roll was canceled.
The U.K. considers adding restrictions amid growing pressure.
British officials are expected to announce measures this week to combat the coronavirus, as cases rose to 1,543, up from 299 cases a week earlier. The government has been criticized by scientists, public health officials and citizens for mixed messaging about what measures will be taken.
The government is holding an emergency meeting on Monday to discuss its next moves and whether to adopt some of the more stringent regulations being put in place across the Continent.
It is likely to release advice on social distancing, including measures that will ask people over 70 to remain in their homes, according to government ministers who spoke about the issue over the weekend.
Matt Hancock, Britain’s health secretary, told the BBC that every person over 70 in the country would be instructed “within the coming weeks” to self-isolate at home for an extended period. He did not provide a time frame, but said it could be for “a very long time.”
The government also said it planned to hold daily televised news conferences, delivered by Prime Minister Boris Johnson and senior ministers, to update the public starting on Monday afternoon.
Downing Street also said Mr. Johnson would speak with British manufacturers to seek support in producing essential medical equipment, including ventilators that are vital in treating severe coronavirus cases.
In the Middle East, countries brace for new cases.
Schools, malls, restaurants and workplaces were shuttered and flights were suspended across the Middle East as several countries moved aggressively to deal with the coronavirus outbreak.
In Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Kuwait, daily life was a whisper of its usual self.
Saudi Arabia sent government workers at all but a few essential agencies home for 16 days. Government employees in Kuwait are being sent home for two weeks. And the Lebanese government declared a state of health emergency, telling people to stay home unless absolutely necessary, an order that was being breached left and right in Beirut on Monday in the absence of enforcement.
Bahrain announced its first death from the coronavirus, and in Iran — where reports of infected senior officials, cabinet ministers and lawmakers have taken on a numbing regularity in recent weeks — a 78-year-old member of the Assembly of Experts died. The Assembly is the clerical body that selects the country’s supreme leader.
Iran has suffered more coronavirus deaths than any country other than China and Italy, with 129 more reported on Monday. Official news agencies said President Hassan Rouhani had announced plans for public screenings around the country starting Tuesday, but did not specify how the testing would be done.
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei’s annual Persian New Year speech at a shrine in the city of Mashhad was called off ahead of the holiday on Friday, and Iranians looked set to celebrate Nowruz quietly at home, with officials urging people to avoid gatherings and stop visiting relatives.
Wealthy Gulf countries are offering some relief to businesses hit by the emergency, though the budgets of oil producers like Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates will suffer from falling oil prices.
Saudi Arabia announced a stimulus package of $13 billion to help small and medium-sized businesses, while the Emirates said it would inject $27 billion into the economy. Qatar said it would provide economic relief and exempt some businesses from water and electricity bills.
There are now more new cases outside China than in the country, where the outbreak began.
As the coronavirus epidemic continues to surge worldwide, there are now more total confirmed cases outside China than inside China, the country where the virus first spread, according to numbers released Monday.
Statistics released by China’s National Health Commission showed that by Sunday the country had recorded 80,680 infections.
The total for the rest of the world — everywhere outside mainland China — exceeded 85,000, according to figures tabulated by Johns Hopkins University. Italy, in particular, has recorded a grim rise in infections and deaths in recent days, and said that total cases in the country are near 25,000.
Since January, China has imposed sweeping restrictions on travel, commerce and transport, especially in Hubei Province, where the outbreak began. The country’s top leader, Xi Jinping, has trumpeted his efforts to bring the epidemic under control.
Fatalities from the virus outside China are also approaching the number recorded there since January. By Sunday, China’s official death toll had reached 3,213. More than three quarters of those occurred in Wuhan, the provincial capital of Hubei, where the outbreak has struck hardest. To date, more than 3,100 have died outside China.
As the outbreak expands outside, the authorities took measures on Monday to further protect Beijing, the capital. All travelers to the city will undergo a 14-day quarantine at sites designated by the government. Previously, arriving travelers were allowed to self-isolate at home.
Other places including Anhui Province, Inner Mongolia and the city of Sanya on Hainan Island announced similar quarantine measures.
Also on Monday, Jack Ma, China’s richest man, said he had donated surgical masks and testing kits to the United States, just weeks after China desperately imported medical equipment from around the world to handle its outbreak.
“All the best to our friends in America,” Mr. Ma, the founder of the e-commerce giant Alibaba, said on Twitter on Monday.
Reporting was contributed by Elisabetta Povoledo, Matina Stevis-Gridneff, Ian, Austen, Catie Edmondson, Peter Baker, Katie Robertson, Jonathan Martin, Michael Cooper, Karen Weise, Reid J. Epstein, Katie Glueck, Shane Goldmacher, Jeanna Smialek, Neil Irwin, Thomas Gibbons-Neff, Safak Timur, Emmet Lindner, Marc Santora, Megan Specia, Aurelien Breeden, Raphael Minder, Melissa Eddy and Tiffany May.
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