Coronavirus Live Updates: White House’s Mask Requirement Won’t Apply to Trump

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Credit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

Fauci will issue a stark warning on the risks of reopening too soon.

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert and a central figure in the government’s response to the coronavirus, intends to warn the Senate on Tuesday that Americans would experience “needless suffering and death” if the country opens up too quickly.

Dr. Fauci, who has emerged as the perhaps nation’s most respected voice during the coronavirus crisis, is one of four top government doctors scheduled to testify remotely at a high-profile hearing on Tuesday before the Senate Health Education, Labor and Pensions Committee.

It will be his first appearance before Congress since President Trump declared a national emergency in March, and a chance for him to address lawmakers and the public without President Trump by his side. He has been largely out of public view since last week, when Mr. Trump abandoned his daily briefings with his coronavirus task force.

In an email to the New York Times reporter Sheryl Gay Stolberg late Monday night, Dr. Fauci laid out what he intended to tell senators.

“The major message that I wish to convey to the Senate HLP committee tomorrow is the danger of trying to open the country prematurely,” he wrote. “If we skip over the checkpoints in the guidelines to: ‘Open America Again,’ then we risk the danger of multiple outbreaks throughout the country. This will not only result in needless suffering and death, but would actually set us back on our quest to return to normal.”

Dr. Fauci was referring to a three-phase White House plan, Opening Up America Again, that lays out guidelines for state officials considering reopening their economies. Among its recommendations: states should have a “downward trajectory of positive tests” or a “downward trajectory of documented cases” of coronavirus over two weeks, while conducting robust contact tracing and “sentinel surveillance” testing of asymptomatic people in vulnerable populations, such as nursing homes.

But many states are reopening without meeting those guidelines, seeking to ease the pain as millions of working people and small-business owners are facing economic ruin while sheltering at home.

“We’re not reopening based on science,” said Dr. Thomas R. Frieden, a former director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “We’re reopening based on politics, ideology and public pressure. And I think it’s going to end badly.”

The much-feared second wave of infection may not wait until fall, many scientists say. Instead, it may become a series of wavelets occurring unpredictably across the country, writes Donald G. McNeil Jr., a Times science and health reporter.

The White House plans to ask officials — but not Trump — to wear face masks.

Credit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

New guidance released to Trump administration employees will require them to wear masks when inside the West Wing, according to an internal memo released on Monday and obtained by The New York Times.

“As an additional layer of protection, we are requiring everyone who enters the West Wing to wear a mask or face covering,” read the memo, which was distributed to staff members through the White House management office.

The new guidance is an abrupt establishment of a policy after two aides working near the president — a military valet and Katie Miller, the vice president’s spokeswoman — tested positive for the coronavirus last week.

The new rules are not expected to apply to President Trump and Vice President Mike Pence, who for weeks have downplayed the need to wear masks, an attitude that had trickled down to staff members. The policy was first reported by The Washington Post.

But hours after the White House instituted the new rule, Mr. Trump denied that any system designed to keep aides safe had broken down. He said he had required that everyone wear masks, insisting that the disease was “very well-contained” at the White House.

“It can happen,” Mr. Trump said. “It’s the hidden enemy. Remember that.”



Trump Says Coronavirus Among White House Staff Is ‘Well Contained’

President Trump played down concerns over coronavirus exposure among White House staff members, after two aides tested positive last week.

“We had a situation here at the White House on Friday where a member of the vice president’s staff tested positive for coronavirus, which has now caused three of the top U.S. officials involved in the coronavirus response to self-isolate. Two-part question: Where did the system break down to allow that to happen? And what would you say to employers who look at the experience here at the White House and say, Are we ready for this?” “I don’t think the system broke down at all. One person tested positive, surprisingly, because the previous day tested negative, and three people that were in contact, relative contact, who I believe they’ve all tested totally negative. But they are going to, for a period of time, self- isolate. So that’s not breaking down. It can happen. It’s the hidden enemy. Remember that. If you look at all of those people over there, every one of them from what I see — these are White House staffers, they’re White House representatives, they’re White House executives, and everybody has a mask on. We’ve had — just about everybody I’ve seen today has worn a mask. Yeah, please go ahead —” “Are you the one who required that, sir?” “Yeah, I did. I did. I required it, yes. We have hundreds and hundreds of people a day pouring into the White House. It’s a massive office complex, including the very large building right behind us that you know so well. So I think we’re really doing a very good job in watching it. And I think it’s very well contained actually.”

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President Trump played down concerns over coronavirus exposure among White House staff members, after two aides tested positive last week.CreditCredit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

The White House also made some smaller changes on Monday, including displaying signage encouraging social distancing at entryways and asking aides if they were displaying symptoms during routine temperature checks, according to officials.

The spread of the virus into the White House comes amid a potential collision between Washington residents and the area’s largest employer, the federal government. The region is not yet open for business, and cases of the virus are climbing in Washington, Maryland and Virginia.

Dr. Anand Parekh, the chief medical adviser for the Bipartisan Policy Center, said the several hundred thousand federal employees in the region should not return to work until several criteria have been met, including the presence of personal protective equipment.

“Their gradual return,” he said, “should be predicated upon the region having adequate testing capacity, a decline in confirmed cases for two to three weeks, a health care system that is under capacity with adequate P.P.E. and critical medical material, and a public health infrastructure that has enough contract tracers.”

In Washington, where few of those benchmarks have been met, the percentage of positive tests is roughly double the upper limit that experts consider sufficient to consider reopening, with confirmed cases still on the upswing. As of Monday morning, there have been 6,389 total cases in the District of Columbia and 328 deaths, a higher rate of death than in most states. The city reported 19 deaths on Friday, the most in Washington in a single day.

When the city reopens, it will beckon thousands of staff members serving senior officials and flocks of lobbyists, service personnel and tourists. City officials have limited autonomy to challenge any federal decisions, given the government’s control over a large percentage of the work force and vast swaths of buildings and land.

The baseball season could open in July, with empty stands (to start).

Credit…Chang W. Lee/The New York Times

Major League Baseball has formalized its plan to return to the field, with teams agreeing Monday on a proposal to send to the players’ union. It calls for an 82-game season — rather than the usual 162 — that would start without fans in early July and would include an expanded playoff field.

The plan must clear major obstacles. Even if the union accepts it, the sides would also have to agree on a salary structure for players. The league would also need to have enough tests for players and employees without depleting the public supply, and agree with the union on working conditions, including protocols in case of positive tests.

To minimize travel, teams would play only against divisional rivals as well as teams in the corresponding geographic division of the opposite league.

Teams would also carry expanded rosters, perhaps up to 50 players, with at least 30 available for each game; rosters usually number 26 active players.

Owners want the players to share in the industry’s financial burdens. The league has proposed paying players based on how much money is earned during the shortened season, with teams splitting revenues 50-50 with athletes.

At least one player, the Washington Nationals closer Sean Doolittle, urged caution.

“Bear with me,” he said on Twitter, “but it feels like we’ve zoomed past the most important aspect of any M.L.B. restart plan: health protections for players, families, staff, stadium workers and the workforce it would require to resume a season.”

Elon Musk announces that Tesla will restart production despite a county order.

Credit…Stephen Lam/Reuters

Elon Musk, the chief executive of Tesla, said on Monday that the electric-car company was resuming production at its assembly plant in Fremont, Calif., even though it had not yet been cleared to do so by local health authorities.

“Tesla is restarting production today against Alameda County rules,” he announced on Twitter. “I will be on the line with everyone else. If anyone is arrested, I ask that it only be me.”

The county’s health officer has said he hopes to work out an agreement with Tesla to open the plant on May 18. The plant is Tesla’s main source of revenue and has been closed since early April. County officials have not authorized the resumption of indoor manufacturing over fears that the coronavirus could spread among large groups working in proximity.

In an email that was sent on Monday and that was reviewed by The New York Times, Tesla’s head of human resources in North America, Valerie Workman, told employees they would be contacted within 24 hours about when to report for work.

The state has authorized a resumption of manufacturing, Gov. Gavin Newsom said on Monday, but that “we recognize localism” and that “if a county doesn’t want to go as far,” local orders would prevail.

To reopen, Washington State restaurants must record information about customers.

Restaurants in Washington State that want to open their doors for dine-in service will have to keep a log of customers and their contact information, according to requirements made public on Monday night.

The new rules allow restaurants in eight small counties that have gained approval from the state to begin serving customers in their establishments. Other requirements include hand sanitizer at entrances, no bar seating, no more than 50 percent occupancy, cloth face coverings for all workers and single-use menus.

The tracking rule requires restaurants offering table service to record a daily log of customers that will be kept for 30 days. The log should include the person’s contact information and the time the person visited.

State officials said the requirement would help with contact tracing if a case linked to a given restaurant emerges.

While Washington has started opening small counties that have not reported a new coronavirus case in at least three weeks, the rules also set the stage for other parts of the state that could have restaurant reopenings in the coming weeks.

In Colorado, public health officials on Monday suspended the license of a restaurant that opened on Mother’s Day in defiance of a ban on dine-in services, the latest escalation in mounting tensions between state authorities and residents who oppose restrictions.

The restaurant, C&C Coffee and Kitchen, in Castle Rock, attracted widespread criticism, as well as support, after videos posted online on Sunday showed customers — most of whom were not wearing masks — filling tables and not bothering to maintain social distance.

“I’m so happy so many people came out to support the Constitution and stand up for what is right,” April Arellano, the owner, told The Castle Rock News-Press on Sunday. “We did our time. We did our two weeks. We did more than two weeks … and we were failing. We had to do something.”

But public health officials on Monday ordered the restaurant to close until it complied with a state order prohibiting dine-in eating. Gov. Jared Polis called the restaurant an “immediate health hazard” during a news conference and urged residents to abide by public health protocols.

“We all have laws that we agree with and laws we disagree with,” Mr. Polis said. “But it’s our responsibility as Coloradans, and as Americans, to follow the law.”

Los Angeles County sheriff says inmates tried to infect themselves by sharing cups.



Inmates Tried to Infect Themselves With Coronavirus, Los Angeles Sheriff Says

The Los Angeles Sheriff’s Office released surveillance videos appearing to show inmates in one correctional center drinking from the same cup and breathing into a shared cloth mask.

We have inmates in the same module. They’re trying to deliberately infect themselves. They’re going to pass a liquid. They’re going to drink from the same cup. And then this person is going to bring out a mask. And he’s having different people sniff the same mask. And watch — now that’s three people that have on the same mask, and it’s going to go to the fourth person that’s going to come into the picture. And this is done deliberately to spread the Covid-19. In this module, 21 inmates, as you can see right there, 21 inmates turned out positive for Covid-19 after going through all these activities. And prior to this, no one had the Covid-19, until this incident happened. We saw the spike in positive cases out of N.C.C.F. And if they could do that deliberately, and we’re literally working 24 hours a day trying to prevent this from happening, and we’re undermined by the own inmates. If you see them, they just took the hot water from the dispensary. Now they’re sharing the hot water from person to person, as you can see there. And the lady outside on the other side of the fence, she’s a nurse and she’s taking temperatures. And what they’re trying to do is elevate their heart rate or their temperature to mask or try to fake a symptom of Covid-19. Then they’re passing the water from person to person. You see? He took, he left the vat. Now he’s going to take his temperature, see? After he took the hot water, you see?

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The Los Angeles Sheriff’s Office released surveillance videos appearing to show inmates in one correctional center drinking from the same cup and breathing into a shared cloth mask.CreditCredit…Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department

Inmates in Los Angeles County jails have attempted to infect themselves with Covid-19 in an effort to be released during the pandemic, the county sheriff, Alex Villanueva, said on Monday.

Surveillance footage from one correctional facility appeared to showed inmates sipping water from a shared bottle and a plastic foam cup, in what Sheriff Villanueva said was an effort to spread the infection.

“As a direct result of the behavior seen in the video, 21 men tested positive for Covid-19 within a week,” officials said in a news release.

Inmates also tried to create false symptoms by drinking hot water in an effort to raise their oral temperatures immediately before being checked by a nurse, the sheriff said. Another video captured a separate group of inmates “huffing” on a face mask that they passed around, officials said.

“Their end game was to try to force their release by having a widespread propagation of the virus within our custody environment,” Sheriff Villanueva said in an interview.

Since late February, Los Angeles County has released more than 5,300 inmates from county jails, the sheriff said. Nearly 5,000 inmates have been quarantined, and 357 have tested positive for the virus; 117 have fully recovered.

Officials said they discovered the inmates’ efforts to infect themselves while investigating increases in positive cases at jail facilities in April.

Trump uses misleading numbers to praise his administration’s virus response.

President Trump made a series of misleading statements on Monday at a Rose Garden news conference praising his administration’s response, declaring that “we have met the moment, and we have prevailed,” on testing.

Using a misleading benchmark, Mr. Trump, flanked by large posters that proclaimed “America leads the world in testing,” announced that more tests had been completed in the United States per capita than in South Korea.

“No matter how you look at it, America is leading the world in testing,” Mr. Trump declared, leaving out the fact that South Korea had carried out rigorous testing early and flattened its curve. South Korea has reported 256 deaths, while the United States has reported over 80,000.

Mr. Trump also misrepresented the status of cases in the United States.

“The numbers around our country are dropping very substantiality,” he said, although data compiled by The New York Times shows that cases in the United States are declining slightly, not substantially, and are growing in some areas. More than 20,000 new cases have been announced almost every day in recent weeks, not the sharp descent scientists had hoped for.

The president was most enthusiastic about what he said was his administration’s track record on testing.

“We are testing more people per capita than South Korea, the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Finland and many other countries,” Mr. Trump said.

This was accurate, but omitted at least 25 countries where testing on a per capita basis was higher than the United States, including Germany, Russia, Spain, Canada, Switzerland, according to statistics compiled by Our World in Data.

Louisiana joins the ranks of states that are reopening some businesses.

Credit…Jason Lee/The Sun News, via Associated Press

In Louisiana, which had one of the earliest outbreaks in the United States after Mardi Gras, Gov. John Bel Edwards said on Monday that he would lift the state’s stay-at-home order on Friday and allow churches, hair and nail salons, gyms and casinos to open with some restrictions.

In South Carolina, where dine-in restaurant service resumed Monday, Gov. Henry McMaster said that on May 18, restrictions would be lifted on gyms, spas and pools, along with barbershops, hair and nail salons and tattoo parlors.

As states around the country weigh reopening, many are looking to the experience of Georgia, one of the first states to allow a broad array of businesses to reopen. Two weeks after Georgia eased its restrictions, the number of new cases there has remained relatively steady — though experts cautioned it was still too soon to assess the public health effects.

“It’s kind of a wait and see,” said Andreas Handel, an associate professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of Georgia, who estimated that people who caught the virus in the first week after reopening may only now be showing symptoms and getting tested. It can take several more days after diagnosis for new cases to show up in data.

“Personally, I don’t feel like I can say yet what the impact is,” he said. “By the end of May, I feel like I would know better.”

Under the first phase of Louisiana’s reopening plan, which is expected to remain in place until June 6, nonessential businesses cannot exceed 25 percent of their occupancy. In addition, employees must wear face masks and customers must follow social distancing.

“Without your hard work and compliance to the stay-at-home order, we wouldn’t have been able to accomplish what we have accomplished,” Mr. Edwards said.

But he added: “This isn’t ‘mission accomplished.’ We’re not declaring victory.”

In Illinois, which is still under a stay-at-home order, a staff member for Gov. J.B. Pritzker has tested positive, prompting the governor to order all employees in the office to temporarily work from home. Mr. Pritzker will work from home as well.

Gov. Charlie Baker of Massachusetts said on Monday that the state planned to follow a four-stage strategy for reopening businesses, but he cautioned that it would only go ahead if there was a “sustained downward trend” in virus-related cases and deaths.

Pressed by two female reporters, Trump abruptly ends his news conference.



Trump Abruptly Walks Out of Coronavirus News Conference

President Trump cut off his news briefing after a Chinese-American reporter pressed him on why he suggested she “ask China” to respond to her question on coronavirus death rates.

“You said many times that the U.S. is doing far better than any other country when it comes to testing.” “Yes.” “Why is this a global competition to you, if every day Americans are still losing their lives and we’re still seeing more cases every day?” “Well, they’re losing their lives everywhere in the world. And maybe that’s a question you should ask China. Don’t ask me. Ask China that question, OK? When you ask them that question, you may get a very unusual answer. Yes, behind you please.” “Sir, why are you saying that to me specifically?” “I’m telling you. I’m not saying it specifically to anybody. I’m saying it to anybody that would ask a nasty question like that.” “That’s not a nasty question.” “Please go ahead.” “Why does it matter?” ”OK, uh, anybody else?” “I have two questions, Mr. President.” “Next, next please.” “You called on me.” “I did, and you didn’t respond. And now I’m calling on the young lady in the back, please.” “I just wanted to let my colleague finish, but can I ask?” “Ladies and gentlemen, thank you very much. Appreciate it. Thank you very much.”

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President Trump cut off his news briefing after a Chinese-American reporter pressed him on why he suggested she “ask China” to respond to her question on coronavirus death rates.CreditCredit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

President Trump abruptly ended his Rose Garden news conference shortly after a Chinese-American reporter pressed him on why he suggested she “ask China” in response to her question on virus death rates.

Weijia Jiang, a White House correspondent for CBS News, asked Mr. Trump why he had created a “global competition” by claiming that the United States had done far better than any other country on testing its citizens for the virus.

“Why does that matter,” Ms. Jiang asked, “if every day Americans are still losing their lives and we’re still seeing more cases every day?”

“Well,” Mr. Trump responded, “they’re losing their lives everywhere in the world, and maybe that’s a question you should ask China.”

Ms. Jiang, who had been leaning into a contact-free microphone to ask her question, lowered her face mask and paused for a couple seconds before asking, “Sir, why are you saying that to me, specifically?”

Kaitlan Collins of CNN tried to ask Mr. Trump a question after briefly ceding her turn at the microphone to let Ms. Jiang follow up, but Mr. Trump tried to move on. After Ms. Collins remained at the microphone and twice tried to ask her question, Mr. Trump abruptly ended his news conference and left the Rose Garden.

Mr. Trump has frequently accused female journalists — often reporters of color — of asking “nasty” questions and not showing enough deference to the rosy pictures he has tried to paint about his pandemic response efforts.

A divide between red and blue states is driving a congressional dispute over aid.

Credit…Gabriella Demczuk for The New York Times

When Senator Mitt Romney of Utah strode into a luncheon with fellow Republicans last week, he was carrying an oversized poster that bore a blunt message: “Blue states aren’t the only ones who are screwed.”

Two days later, Senator Rick Scott, Republican of Florida, made the opposite pitch, arriving at another party gathering with his own placard that showed how rosy his state’s financial picture was compared to those of three Democratic states: California, Illinois and New York. Why should Congress send help to struggling states and cities, he argued, when the bulk of the aid would go to Democratic strongholds with histories of fiscal mismanagement?

The two senators — both former governors — were taking sides in what is emerging as a contentious debate among Republicans shaping the next sweeping package of federal coronavirus relief. With many states and cities experiencing devastating fiscal crises during the pandemic, Democrats have joined bipartisan groups of governors and mayors in pressing for as much as $700 billion for troubled states, cities and towns.

But Republicans are divided over how much aid to provide and what conditions to place on the money. Much of the dispute is being driven by the political bent of the states that stand to benefit or lose.

The disagreement is another reminder that as Mr. Trump and a divided Congress make decisions about federal relief, politics is never far from their calculations. Now Democrats are urging action on the next phase of assistance even as Mr. Trump and Republicans argue that the government should wait to see how the economy is faring before enacting another sweeping stimulus law.

States run by Democrats and Republicans alike are projecting steep drops in tax collections and weighing spending cuts.

Gov. Gavin Newsom of California said on Monday that five Western states had sent a letter to congressional leaders requesting an additional $1 trillion in assistance to states across the nation. “This is the requirement of this moment,” Mr. Newsom said.

A new study offers the most complete details to date of American children seriously sickened by the virus.

As concern grows over the potential for children to become seriously ill from the virus, a new study paints the most detailed picture yet of American children who were treated in intensive care units throughout the United States as the pandemic was taking hold in the country.

None of the children in the study, published Monday in the journal JAMA Pediatrics, were stricken by the mysterious new inflammatory syndrome linked to the virus that can cause life-threatening cardiac issues in children. They experienced the virus’s primary line of attack: the severe respiratory problems that have afflicted tens of thousands of American adults.

The study looked at 48 cases from 14 hospitals of infants during late March and early April. Two of the children died. Eighteen were placed on ventilators, and two of them remained on breathing machines more than a month later, said Dr. Lara S. Shekerdemian, the chief of critical care at Texas Children’s Hospital and an author of the study.

A vast majority of the patients — 40 children, including the two who died — had pre-existing medical conditions. Nearly half of those patients had complex developmental disorders.

“You can read this either like a half-empty glass or a half-full glass,” said Dr. Daniele De Luca, the president-elect of the European Society for Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, who was not involved in the study. “At the end of the day, we have to realize that this disease can actually be serious in children.”

New York will begin a limited reopening upstate.

Credit…Brittainy Newman/The New York Times

In the most concrete step toward restarting his battered state, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York announced on Monday that three upstate regions might partially reopen this weekend, with limited construction, manufacturing and curbside retail.

The move would come 10 weeks after the state’s first confirmed case of the virus, which has killed more than 26,000 people in New York and sickened hundreds of thousands more. But that toll has been largely borne by New York City and its suburbs, with far fewer cases and fatalities thus far in the state’s more rural regions.

Both city and state data have suggested that New York City has made progress in containing the outbreak and reducing transmission. But a ban on large gatherings and the widespread closures of nonessential businesses probably would not end before June, Mayor Bill de Blasio said on Monday before the governor’s announcement.



‘Some Regions Are Ready to Go Today,’ Cuomo Says of Reopening

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York provided details for a phased reopening plan this week for parts of the state.

Some regions are ready to go today. They just need to get some logistical pieces in order by the end of the week. Some places are very close — Central New York, just one or two criteria that haven’t been met yet. And you can do that with Long Island, New York City, all across the state. When we reopen, we’re talking about a phased reopening. That’s what everyone basically is doing. The question is moderating that phasing, and doing it intelligently. But starting with construction, manufacturing, retail, curbside pickup, agriculture, forestry and fishing, then to Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4. We’ll also open certain businesses statewide, which are low risk: landscaping, gardening; low-risk recreational activities like tennis, drive-in movie theaters. And then businesses have to do their part also. This is not a one-sided affair. Businesses have to put safety precautions in place. We understand what has to be done, how the workforce has to have personal protection. They have to be socially distanced, the workspace itself in some cases has to be adjusted, reconfigured.

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Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York provided details for a phased reopening plan this week for parts of the state.CreditCredit…Mike Segar/Reuters

On Monday, the governor cautioned that the reopening would be gradual, and that it was predicated on the infection rate in those regions remaining low. Officials would “be able to pull the plug or slow down the increase in activity” if the virus spread more quickly.

The state’s nonessential businesses have been closed and large gatherings have been banned since March 22, under a stay-at-home order set to expire this week. The state would allow certain low-risk business and activities to resume operating on Friday, including landscaping and gardening work, outdoor recreation such as tennis and drive-in movie theaters.

The number of new virus hospitalizations was at its lowest number since March 19, before the state’s shutdown began, Mr. Cuomo said. An additional 161 people had died of the virus — the lowest daily death toll since March 27, the last time that reported deaths were under 200.

Follow updates from our international correspondents.

Many countries have falling rates of infection, hospitalizations and deaths. But with no vaccine, they are moving cautiously toward reopening, wary of a surge in new cases.

Reporting was contributed by Wilson Andrews, Mike Baker, Pam Belluck, Julie Bosman, Audra D.S. Burch, Emily Cochrane, Michael Cooper, John Eligon, Emily Flitter, Michael Gold, Dana Goldstein, Maggie Haberman, Tyler Kepner, Isadora Kosofsky, Dan Levin, Jesse McKinley, Donald G. McNeil Jr., Sarah Mervosh, Amelia Nierenberg, Nicole Perlroth, Matt Phillips, Linda Qiu, Campbell Robertson, Katie Rogers, Elliot Ross, Katey Rusch, David E. Sanger, Marc Santora, Eric Schmitt, Michael D. Shear, Natasha Singer, Jeanna Smialek, Casey Smith, Jennifer Steinhauer, Sheryl Gay Stolberg, Eileen Sullivan, Vanessa Swales, Jim Tankersley, Tracey Tully and Neil Vigdor.

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