Covid-19 Live Updates: Classrooms Fill Up Around the World

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GLOBAL EDUCATION ROUNDUP

Across the globe, students are returning to the classroom.

From Wuhan to London to Paris and many places in between, students have returned to classrooms after months of staying home in an attempt to slow the spread of the coronavirus.

In the Chinese city of Wuhan, the original center of the coronavirus epidemic, state-run news media said that more than 2,840 primary and secondary schools, serving nearly 1.4 million students, reopened on Tuesday. It was a striking turnabout from the early days, when the virus spread rapidly and mysteriously through Wuhan and officials imposed a 76-day lockdown.

In Britain, classrooms and schoolyards rang with the clamor of students on Tuesday morning as hundreds of thousands of children returned to classrooms in the government’s boldest bid yet to reopen society.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson has declared the reopening of schools to be a “moral duty,” and made it a centerpiece of his strategy to recover from the pandemic, which has inflicted a higher toll — 41,500 deaths — on Britain than on any other European country.

In Russia, which reached 1 million virus cases on Tuesday, schools opened with few precautions. Teachers and children are not required to wear masks.

After six months off, other than a brief return in June, more than 12 million students in France are also back in classrooms. Students over 11 and all teachers have to wear masks and try to maintain social distance. Where there are outbreaks, classrooms will close again, said the minister of education, Jean-Michel Blanquer.

In Israel, more than 2 million students returned Tuesday despite a relatively high coronavirus infection rate and concerns that academic institutions could facilitate the spread. Experts have said that Israel’s quick reopening of schools last May — after Covid-19 cases had subsided — played a significant role in the virus’s comeback.

Credit…Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Israeli authorities instituted new regulations meant to prevent outbreaks, and decided to keep schools closed in 23 cities and towns with especially high infection rates. As of Tuesday afternoon, there were 20,699 active virus cases in Israel, according to the Health Ministry.

In Belgium, children 5 and older also headed back to school Tuesday. Only those in high-risk groups were allowed to stay home. But children returning from vacation in dangerous areas are not allowed back in school for 14 days. Masks are required for older students.

Back in Wuhan, children endured temperature checks outside school gates and received lessons in hand-washing. But many hailed the school year as another sign that life was slowly getting back to normal.

“School is open, and I’m very excited and happy,” a sixth-grader named Li Xinnuo told a radio broadcaster in Wuhan. “I can see my classmates, whom I haven’t seen for a long time.”

New York City delays the start of school to get ready for in-person classes.

New York City is delaying the start of its school year by 10 days, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced on Tuesday, as part of a deal to avert a teachers’ strike and calm principals and parents anxious about the start of in-person classes.

The city’s 1.1 million children will not have any in-person classes until Sept. 21. Most children will not start remote classes until that date.

“It’s a very complex moment in history, to say the least,” the mayor said. “Real powerful issues had to be discussed, and resolution had to be found.”

The delay is intended to give principals and administrators more time to prepare for the most closely-watched reopening effort in the country. School leaders, teachers, elected officials and union bosses have been raising alarms for weeks, with increasing urgency, about the system’s readiness for reopening.

New York City’s school district, the nation’s largest, is the only one in a major U.S. city that is planning to reopen its schools in-person this month. Mr. de Blasio has insisted that classrooms would reopen this fall, a promise that has not been made by leaders of other big cities, and had spent weeks resisting calls to delay school reopening. He had argued that the system’s mostly low-income, Black and Latino students urgently needed in-person classes, an assertion widely supported by education experts.

New York has an enormous population of vulnerable public schoolchildren who have been largely failed by remote learning: some 200,000 children with disabilities, and 114,000 homeless students.

But the mayor’s insistence that schools would be ready to reopen as originally scheduled on Sept. 10 frustrated many teachers and principals, who said they did not believe Mr. de Blasio understood the depth of the challenges they faced on the ground.

“We now can say that the New York City public schools system has the most aggressive policies and safeguards of any school system in America,” Michael Mulgrew, the president of the city’s teachers union, said Tuesday at a news conference with the mayor.

For parents of school-age children, there’s no easy answer to the question of sending them back to classrooms.

Credit…Cristobal Herrera-Ulashkevich/EPA, via Shutterstock

Throughout the summer, parents have been weighing whether to send their children back to school (if the schools even open at all) for in-person learning. Apoorva Mandavilli, a New York Times science reporter — and a mother to an 8-year-old and an 11-year-old — spoke to a number of experts and found that there were arguments on both sides.

All summer, as information about how the coronavirus affects children has trickled in, I’ve been updating a balance sheet in my head. Every study I read, every expert I talked to, was filling in columns on this sheet: reasons for and against sending my children back to school come September.

Into the con column went a study from Chicago that found children carry large amounts of virus in their noses and throats, maybe even more than adults do. Also in the con column: two South Korean studies, flawed as they were, which suggested children can spread the virus to others — and made me wonder whether my sixth-grader, at least, should stay home.

Reports from Europe hinting that it was possible to reopen schools safely dribbled onto the pro side of my ledger. But could we match those countries’ careful precautions, or their low community levels of virus?

But as other parents called and texted to ask what I was planning to do, I turned to the real experts: What do we know about the coronavirus and children? And what should parents like me do?

Among the factors she examined:

  • Fewer children than adults become infected. But childhood infection is not uncommon.

  • Children do become sick with the virus, but deaths are very rare.

  • Children can spread the virus to others. How often is still unknown.

Russia’s government says virus cases there have passed 1 million.

Credit…Pavel Golovkin/Associated Press

The number of coronavirus cases reported in Russia since the start of the pandemic passed 1 million on Tuesday, the government said, and continues to rise by about 5,000 per day despite an official declaration in early August that the country had a vaccine.

The authorities reported 4,729 new cases in the past 24 hours, bringing the total to 1,000,048. The death toll in Russia is now 17,299.

President Vladimir V. Putin announced that the vaccine, Sputnik V, was ready for use outside of clinical trials, and health officials said mass vaccination would begin in October. The health ministry on Monday pushed back the timeline for general vaccinations to November or December, closer to when other countries have said a vaccine may be available.

In the early months of the pandemic, Russia reported so few cases it seemed to have been all but passed over as the disease spread.

Russia had closed its border with China early on — a day before the United States banned travel from China — and later with European countries. A Soviet-era system of quarantines developed to stop plague and other infectious diseases may have helped for a time.

Bad news soon followed. Infections picked up, and most of the country was forced into a lockdown.

Experts blamed spread in hospitals, haphazard social distancing, and a faulty early test kit that produced many false negatives and obscured the initial scale of the problem.

Russia, with a population of about 145 million, is now fourth in the world for reported total infections, after the United States, Brazil and India.

Per capita, Russia’s rate of infection is about one-third that of the United States. Russia by Monday had reported 687 cases per 100,000 people, compared with 1,836 reported infections per 100,000 people in the United States.

Despite the steady rise in cases, Russian schools opened on Tuesday with few precautions. Teachers and children are not required to wear masks.

Hawaii will require new arrivals to register online and check in daily during a two-week quarantine.

Credit…Michelle Mishina-Kunz for The New York Times

Hawaii, trying to head off a surge of the coronavirus that hit in mid-August, will require visitors and residents arriving on the islands to register by computer starting on Tuesday. The online registration, to be filled out before arrival, will ask would-be visitors to provide their health status and destination.

The information will be used to determine if all people arriving on the islands, whether tourist or resident, require additional health screening at the airport. It will also be used to ensure that those people maintain a strict 14-day quarantine.

During that period, visitors and returning residents must check in each day, indicating their health status and that they are remaining in their residence. (Food must be delivered.) If a person does not check in, the state will call, and if the person cannot be reached, it will dispatch police officers.

“If they can’t get a hold of you, they’ll start sending law enforcement,” Doug Murdock, the chief information officer for Hawaii, said in an interview. He said that the database could also be used by the police to crosscheck if a visitor were pulled over for speeding or caught in another situation involving law enforcement.

“All of the law enforcement, the counties and the attorney general have access to the database,” Mr. Murdock said. Those caught breaking quarantine can be fined up to $5,000 or imprisoned for up to one year.

The efforts by Hawaii are among the most advanced uses of technology by any state to screen visitors.

Some scientists are working on, and giving themselves, D.I.Y. vaccines.

Credit…Kayana Szymczak for The New York Times

In April, more than three months before any coronavirus vaccine would enter large clinical trials, the mayor of Friday Harbor, a picturesque island town in Washington State, invited a microbiologist friend to vaccinate him.

The exchange, between Mayor Farhad Ghatan and Johnny Stine, who runs North Coast Biologics, a Seattle biotech company, occurred on the mayor’s Facebook page, to the horror of several town residents following it.

Mr. Stine is far from the only scientist creating experimental coronavirus vaccines, which may be for themselves, family, friends and other interested parties. Dozens of scientists around the world have done it, with wildly varying methods, affiliations and claims.

The most impressively credentialed effort is the Rapid Deployment Vaccine Collaborative, or RaDVaC, which boasts the famous Harvard geneticist George Church among its 23 listed collaborators. (The research, however, is not happening on Harvard’s campus.)

Among the most secretive projects is CoroNope, which refuses to name anyone involved.

Each D.I.Y. effort is motivated, at least in part, by the same idea: Exceptional times demand exceptional actions. If scientists have the skills and gumption to assemble a vaccine on their own, the logic goes, they should do it. Defenders say that as long as they are measured about their claims and transparent about their process, we could all benefit.

But critics say that no matter how well intentioned, these scientists aren’t likely to learn anything useful because their vaccines are not being put to the true test of randomized and placebo-controlled studies. What’s more, taking these vaccines could cause harm, or offer a false sense of protection.

Small-business failures loom as federal aid dries up.

Credit…Kayana Szymczak for The New York Times

The United States faces a wave of small-business failures this fall if the federal government does not provide a new round of financial assistance — a prospect that economists warn would prolong the recession, slow the recovery and perhaps enduringly reshape the American business landscape.

As the pandemic drags on, it is threatening even well-established businesses that were financially healthy before the crisis. If they shut down or are severely weakened, it could accelerate corporate consolidation and the dominance of the biggest companies.

Tens of thousands of restaurants, bars, retailers and other small businesses have already closed. But many more have survived, buoyed in part by billions of dollars in government assistance to both businesses and their customers.

The Paycheck Protection Program provided hundreds of billions in loans and grants to help businesses retain employees and meet other obligations. Billions more went to the unemployed, in a $600 weekly supplement to state jobless benefits, and to many households, through a $1,200 tax rebate — money available to spend at local stores and restaurants.

Now that aid is largely gone, even as the economic recovery that took hold in the spring is losing momentum. The fall will bring new challenges: Colder weather will curtail outdoor dining and other weather-dependent adaptations that helped businesses hang on in much of the country, and epidemiologists warn that the winter could bring a surge in coronavirus cases.

As a result, many businesses face a stark choice: Do they try to hold on through a winter that could bring new shutdowns and restrictions, with no guarantee that sales will bounce back in the spring? Or do they cut their losses while they have something to salvage?

GLOBAL Roundup

Hong Kong begins mass testing, but some fear Beijing’s influence.

Credit…Pool photo by Anthony Kwan

The program is open to everyone, and the local government has touted it as generous, vital aid from the central Chinese government. More than half a million of the city’s 7.5 million residents have already registered for it.

But some members of Hong Kong’s medical community have criticized the one-off voluntary tests as a waste of resources, saying they could create a false sense of security.

Another concern is that samples could be used for Beijing’s sprawling surveillance — a claim the government has denied.

Still others say it is preposterous that the local government is allowing citywide testing after using the virus to justify postponing citywide elections that had been scheduled for Sept. 6.

On Tuesday, Hong Kong’s leader, Carrie Lam, said that the government’s critics were trying to “cause worries and fears” about the program to scare people away.

“They don’t understand the details of the program, the procedures, the safeguards that we have put in place,” Mrs. Lam told reporters.

Ken Li, a tennis instructor who took the test Tuesday, welcomed the government’s plan.

“Getting tested is no doubt a better option,” Mr. Li, 50, said outside one of the city’s 141 swabbing stations. “Then people can isolate themselves if they’re infected.”

Also on Tuesday, a Hong Kong employee of Founder Securities, a mainland Chinese company, said that it had pressured its staff in the city to take the tests and required them to present their results, according to the Hong Kong Financial Industry Employees General Union.

The union said on Facebook that it was deeply concerned about the company’s order, which it said had been issued to all employees in Hong Kong. Founder Securities did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

Hong Kong’s third and most severe wave of infections, which peaked in July, appears to have gradually eased, with only nine new confirmed cases on Monday. The city’s schools are to resume in-person instruction on Sept. 23.

In other news from around the world:

  • Doctors went on strike in Nigeria’s capital, saying that the government had not paid promised Covid-19 hazard allowances. The Association of Resident Doctors said the pay hadn’t materialized “despite timelines and promises.” The regional minister of state, Ramatu Aliyu, said doctors “must make sacrifices,” according to Nigerian news reports. Officially, around 1,000 people have died and about 50,000 have had the coronavirus in Nigeria, but as in many countries, testing is low. Earlier in the year, there was a spate of unexplained deaths in the country’s north.

  • After Hungary announced last week that it would impose border restrictions from Sept. 1 to curb a spike in virus cases, it decided to make some exceptions. In a statement on Facebook on Monday night, Hungary’s foreign minister, Peter Szijjarto, said his country would permit travel from the Czech Republic after a personal plea from the country’s prime minister, Andrej Babis. The exception will also apply to Slovakia and Poland.

  • With the virus spreading quickly in Gaza, Israel and the Palestinian militant group Hamas agreed Monday night to ease up on bombarding each other. Israel agreed to let fuel flow back to Gaza’s power station, and a cash infusion from Qatar helped seal the deal. The virus has accelerated its spread in Gaza since last week, when Hamas officials reported the first cases of community transmission. As of Monday, there were 243 active cases of local spread and 37 among returning travelers held at quarantine facilities, according to the Hamas-run health ministry. Officials have reported three virus-related deaths in the past week and say tests are in short supply.

Berlin makes masks mandatory for protesters.

Credit…Adam Berry/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

After tens of thousands of unmasked protesters turned out to rally against virus restrictions in the German capital over the weekend, the city instituted a rule that requires masks for demonstrations with more than 100 participants.

Dilek Kalayci, the city senator for public health, said at a news conference on Tuesday that the rules would go into effect immediately. She noted that in certain cases, like when demonstrators are singing or chanting, masks could become mandatory even for smaller protests.

Last week, the city tried to ban the scheduled protests because the authorities worried that infection rules would be flaunted, but the decision was overturned in a court. Soon after a march numbering 18,000 began on Saturday morning, the police chief ordered the protesters to wear masks. When many refused, the police shut down the protest, although it let another, bigger gathering in the afternoon go forward.

Though Germany has been lauded for its coronavirus response and low death rate, a vocal minority has taken to the streets to protest measures to contain the spread. On Monday, the country registered 1,218 new virus cases, according to the federal agency keeping track.

Other rules set by Berlin on Tuesday regulated family gatherings and large crowds.

The new laws will be tested quickly: On Tuesday afternoon, another demonstration against virus rules is expected in Tiergarten, the large central park in Berlin. If all 500 registered protesters show up, masks will no longer be optional.

Bhutan’s government has started to sell tobacco to fight the virus.

Credit…Upasana Dahal/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Openly selling or smoking tobacco has been highly restricted in the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan since 2010. But now the government has begun selling tobacco directly to smokers as part of an unconventional strategy aimed at fighting a more pressing problem: Covid-19.

Prime Minister Lotay Tshering, a medical doctor by profession, recently blamed tobacco smuggling for propelling the deadly virus. Even with borders closed and visitors prohibited from Bhutan, the tobacco black market has carried on.

Where that has been reduced, nicotine-deprived smokers have flocked to the border with India to get cigarettes. As virus cases have spiked in India, concerns have grown that the virus will return with the tobacco.

Dr. Tshering said that left his government with no other choice other than to sell tobacco products on its own to rein in movement to the border. In recent weeks, the government has been establishing duty-free outlets selling cigarettes in the capital, Thimphu, and other places.

In mid-August, Namgay Tshering, the finance minister, also announced a government program that would bring “tobacco products to your doorstep.” Both measures have been described as temporary.

Bhutan, a Buddhist nation of around 750,000 people, has recorded fewer than 230 coronavirus cases and no related deaths. Recently, loaders working at Phuentsholing, a major Bhutan-India border point, tested positive for coronavirus, reinforcing the difficulties of controlling transmission across a porous border.

New viruses among humans are accelerating. The reason is ecological disturbance, caused by us.

We interviewed experts to find out why so many new virus are spreading. The answer lies in humans’ continued disturbance of animals and their habitats. Watch our video to see how we are making ourselves sick.

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transcript

How to Stop the Next Pandemic

It’s not just Covid-19. Pathogens once confined to nature are making their way into humans on a more regular basis. And it’s our fault.

This graph can tell you a lot about your future. Each bar shows how many new infectious diseases emerged in a year. In 1944, there was one. In ’48, three. We have no immunity to new pathogens. Each disease on this list posed a new pandemic threat. It was around 1960 when the number began to rise. By the time 1990 rolled around, it wasn’t just two or three new diseases that year — there were 18. Soon after, the trend became so clear, a scientist appeared on TV with a warning. “What worries me the most is that we’re going to miss the next emerging disease, that we’re going to suddenly find a SARS virus that moves from one part of the planet to another, wiping out people as it moves along.” That was 17 years ago. And today, stuck at home in a seemingly never-ending pandemic purgatory, it appears that we did not heed his warning. Covid-19 has opened our eyes to the danger. But has it opened them enough to look past this pandemic to what our future holds? We tracked down that same scientist today to ask him: How do you stop the next pandemic? He said the trend isn’t looking good. “We see an increased frequency of emerging pandemics. We also still have the ones that emerged recently. We still have H.I.V. We still have Ebola. We still have H1N1. So we’re adding to the stock of known pandemic pathogens with new ones at an increasing rate. That’s not a good place for us as a species right now.” If you want to know how to stop the next pandemic, you first need to know why they’re happening. “We humans are an ecological anomaly. There have never been 7.7 billion large-body vertebrates of one species on this planet before in the history of earth.” This is David Quammen. He’s a — “— a very unmystical, black-hole Darwinian materialist.” Well, David’s a storyteller. He’s been writing about the origin of infectious diseases for decades. “So we are unprecedented, and we’re causing ecological wreckage that’s unprecedented, and there are consequences of that.” [explosions] “Pandemics emerge due to our ecological footprint. And our cultural footprint is accelerating exponentially.” Remember this guy? That’s Peter Daszak, the scientist who warned us in 2003. He’s sometimes referred to as a virus hunter. He goes out to preemptively find viruses before they find us. “It’s the connection between humans and animals that’s driving this. And that connection happens where people move into a new region through things like road building and deforestation, mining, palm oil production, timber and livestock production. People move into new areas. They come across wildlife that we’ve not really had much contact with. The pathogens spill over into them, and then can spread through that connectivity.” [birds squawking] “We’re encroaching on their habitats. And just many, many more opportunities for spillover events to occur.” Christian Walzer is a global veterinarian and executive director for the Wildlife Conservation Society. “The destruction happening at the edge of forests is one of the areas where we’re very concerned. Changing the trees that bats, for example, would roost on, they may be driven to an edge. They may be driven into an area where there’s more human population. And suddenly, you create a contact area which didn’t exist before.” So what do these new contact areas look like? In this video, we’re going to show you three ways in which our changing relationship with wildlife is increasingly creating dangerous pandemic possibilities. So let’s say you want to sell toothpaste. No, peanut butter. Wait, wait shampoo. Never mind, it doesn’t matter. In all of those cases, you need palm oil. So you burn down a forest in Malaysia to grow palm trees. But that forest was home to some bats. So the bats find a new home, near some fruit trees on a pig farm. But soon, a virus from those bats makes its way into the farmers who own the property. This isn’t science fiction. This is how the Nipah virus came to humans. “Why was it getting from the fruit bats to the people? Because of habitat destruction. Most of the forest in northern Malaysia, where the bats would ordinarily be living wild and feeding on wild fruit, most of that forest had been destroyed. In place of the forest, among other human enterprises, were giant pig farms, piggeries, where thousands of pigs were kept in a single corral, being raised for meat. Some of those corrals were shaded by domestic fruit trees that were planted to grow mangoes or to grow starfruit for another revenue stream for these pig farms. So the bats, having lost their wild habitat, are attracted to the domestic fruit trees. They come in, they eat the mango, they eat the starfruit, they drop the pulp into the pig corrals. And with it, they drop their feces and their urine and their virus. It gets into the pigs, spreads through the pigs, then gets in the pig farmers, pork sellers, and other people.” Land use change is one big reason more infectious diseases are making their way into humans. However, it’s not just animal habitat we need to worry about. Animal diversity can be just as important. “Loss of biodiversity itself has led to emergence of disease. When you lose species, you tend to be left with certain groups. And if they happen to carry viruses, and if they dominate the landscape, you will be exposed to those viruses more than others.” This story doesn’t begin in the jungles of Africa or forests of Southeast Asia. We begin in the American suburbs. “If humans cut down the forest and turn it into a suburb, like those beautiful suburbs we know in semi-rural Connecticut, where there are great big lawns in front of nice houses, and there are hedges, and then there’s somebody else’s house with a great big lawn in front of it, that’s really good habitat for white-footed mice, and also for white-tailed deer. Not so good for larger mammals, like foxes, like weasels, or for birds of prey. So the hawks and the owls tend to disappear, the foxes and the weasels tend to disappear from this environment. What happens then? You get more white-footed mice. You get an abundance of white-footed mice because their predators are not suppressing them.” Having an abundance of white-footed mice wouldn’t be so bad, except they are the natural reservoir host of Lyme disease. This means they harbor the bacteria, but it doesn’t make them sick. So if there was a biological diverse landscape, well, then — “The pathogen is shared amongst the various hosts that are in that landscape. Many of these hosts are incompetent and are unable to actually transmit the disease. And so it becomes a dilution effect.” “The net result of this reduction in biological diversity, changing the landscape, making it more fragmented, less forested, is more ticks infecting more little kids when they go out to roll around in the grass and bust through the hedges. So there is more Lyme disease.” And yet, Covid-19 may not have started this way at all. “In view of the ongoing outbreak, if you create a completely artificial interface where you go and capture animals regionally, globally, and bring them together at one place, like at a wildlife trading market, then you’re obviously creating fantastic opportunities for viruses to spill over.” A pathogen from an animal might not be able to spill over directly into humans, but it could spill over into another animal, evolve or adapt, and then infect humans. With a rotating variety of animals stacked on top of each other, the pandemic possibilities are significant. This is one theory of how the coronavirus may have started in China. The thing is, in the past, a spillover event from this wildlife market may not have affected you. “We also have to take one step back from the sort of very romantic idea that these are isolated communities living in central Africa. You know, I always point out that a rat which you capture somewhere in northern Congo now, within 12 hours, you’re in Brazzaville.” “The Republic of the Congo now has a new modern highway and economic artery thanks to Chinese assistance.” See, just 10 years ago, that would have been impossible. But then, well, China — “The national highway was complete —” China wanted access to minerals to mine. In exchange, they helped with infrastructure. Now, there’s a road. They’ve created accessways, not only for the rare earths which are so important for your mobile phone, but for viruses as well. “If you catch the plane that evening and you take your rat with you because you want to bring it to your family in Paris, it’s less than 24 hours from a very, very remote community all the way to Paris.” But luggage is screened, you say. The rat would get caught. Maybe. But really, the rat isn’t the biggest threat. It’s you. Your bag gets screened. Your blood does not. “We all have a share of the responsibility. It’s not just people in China who want to eat bats or who want to eat pangolins. That may be the immediate cause of this spillover, but in terms of the initiation of these things, generally, there is also enough blame, enough responsibility to go around.” The three ways in which a pandemic could start shown in this video all have one thing in common — us. “Here’s what we did. We changed the planet so significantly and so fundamentally that we dominate every ecosystem on earth, right now. We are the dominant vertebrate species. Our livestock are the dominant biomass on the planet. And that’s the issue. What we’ve done is we’ve created this pathway through our consumption habits by which viruses can get from wildlife into people and then infect us. And our response is we blame one country versus another, we blame people who eat one species over people who don’t eat another and we blame nature. Well, no. We need to point the finger directly at ourselves. This is not a whiny argument that the world’s falling apart and it’s our fault, this is an argument that says we are the reason why this happens. We, therefore, have the power to change it.” So how do you stop the next pandemic? “Well, this is what you do. No. 1, you find out what viruses there are in wildlife. We estimate 1.7 million unknown viruses. Let’s go and discover them. Let’s get the viral sequences. Let’s get them into the hands of vaccine and drug developers, and get them to design vaccines and drugs that are broadly effective — not just against one pathogen, but against a number of pathogens. But No. 2, and critically, we need to work with the communities that are on the front line of this. And that’s a solution that the public are less excited by. It’s old-fashioned. It’s working in foreign countries with different communities that do different things. It’s hard work, and it’s less attractive to the voting public. We’ve got to do all of the above. High-tech, low-tech, but focused on prevention. It’s possible and it’s doable. Let’s get on and do it.” Great. Let’s do it. No more pandemics. There’s just one problem — money. “Please, in the back.” “Thank you, Mr. President. U.S. intelligence is saying this week that the N.I.H., under the Obama administration in 2015, gave that lab $3.7 million in a grant. Why would the U.S. give a grant like that to China?” “We will end that grant very quickly, but —” That’s Donald Trump canceling a grant that was funding research to stop pandemics, including studying coronaviruses in bats. But the grant wasn’t going to China. It was going to — you guessed it — Peter Daszak. That grant started in 2015. “2015? Who was president then, I wonder?” “We have to put in place an infrastructure, not just here at home, but globally that allows us to see it quickly, isolate it quickly, respond to it quickly.” This is not a new fight. “But if we wait for a pandemic to appear, it will be too late to prepare.” What is new is our reaction to it. “It’s nobody’s fault — it’s not like — who could have ever predicted anything like this?” “What worries me the most is that we’re going to miss the next emerging disease.” If we don’t want more Covid-19-like events in the future, we need to stop pandemics before they happen. That means depoliticizing pandemics and investing in prevention. “I think we need to wake up. There’s a certain moment right now where the public around the world, because this pandemic has got to every country on the planet, the public now see their own health as intimately connected to why these pandemics emerge through the wildlife trade or deforestation. So we need to really drive that message home that producing a healthier planet will actually save our own lives and improve our own healths.”

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It’s not just Covid-19. Pathogens once confined to nature are making their way into humans on a more regular basis. And it’s our fault.

The U.S. Open tennis tournament is underway in New York, with fans cheering from screens.

Credit…Jason Szenes/EPA, via Shutterstock

This year, it looks — and sounds — a lot different. It began on Monday in an unusually empty USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, New York. A grid of fans cheered remotely from screens that surround the court at Arthur Ashe Stadium.

As the first match of the tournament — played by Angelique Kerber of Germany and Ajla Tomljanovic of Australia — was underway, the loudest sounds were the screeching trains from the Long Island Rail Road yard just beyond the tennis center’s walls and planes flying low out of La Guardia Airport.

Ms. Tomljanovic, who lost 6-4, 6-4, described the bizarre sensation of slugging through the most intense points only to have all that effort met with the sound of one coach clapping. “That’s usually when the crowd would erupt,” said Ms. Tomljanovic, who likes to look at the stands during her changeovers but saw nothing but empty seats covered by tarps.

Another player, Cameron Norrie of Britain, said he tried to focus on all the people watching at home in England.

“At least I am giving them something to cheer about,” he said of his countrymen and women. “In the back of my mind, everyone was watching.”

Reporting was contributed by Ben Casselman, Antonella Francini, Emma G. Fitzsimmons, Matthew Futterman, Michael Gold, Javier C. Hernández, Andrew E. Kramer, Mark Landler, Ruth Maclean, Apoorva Mandavilli, Heather Murphy, Benjamin Novak, Monika Pronczuk, Adam Rasgon, Matt Richtel, Christopher F. Schuetze, Eliza Shapiro, Bhadra Sharma, Kaly Soto, Eileen Sullivan, Lucy Tompkins, Liu Yi, Elaine Yu and Albee Zhang.

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